A Summary of Unification Thought

Preface

Theory of the Original Image
I.   Content of the Original Image
II.  Structure of the Original Image
III. Traditional Ontologies and Unification Thought

Ontology: A Theory of Being
I. Individual Truth Being
II Connected Being

Theory of the Original Human Nature
I.   A Being With Divine Image
II.  A Being with Divine Character
III. A Being with Position
IV.Conclusion
V. A Unification Thought Appraisal of the Existentialist Analysis of Human Existence

Axiology: A Theory of Value
I.   Meaning of Axiology and Significance of Value
II.  Divine Principle Foundation for Axiology
III. Kinds of Value
IV. Essence of Value
V. Determination of Actual Value and Standard of Value
VI.Weaknesses in the Traditional Views of Value
VII.Establishing the New View of Value
VIII.Historical Changes in the View of Value

Theory of Education
I.   The Divine Principle Foundation for a Theory of Education
II.  The Three Forms of Education
III. The Image of the Ideal Educated Person
IV. Traditional Theories of Education
V. An Appraisal of Traditional Theories of Education from the Standpoint of Unification Thought

Ethics
I.   The Divine Principle Foundation for Ethics
II.  Ethics and Morality
III. Order and Equality
IV.Appraisal of Traditional Theories of Ethics from the Viewpoint of the Unification Theory of Ethics

Theory of Art
I.   The Divine Principle Foundation for the New Theory of Art
II.  Art and Beauty
III. The Dual Purpose of Artistic Activity: Creation and Appreciation
IV. Requisites for Artistic Appreciation
V. Technique, Materials, and Style in Artistic Creation
VI. Requisites for Artistic Appreciation
VII.Unity in Art
VIII.Art and Ethics
IX. Types of Beauty
X.  A Critique and Counterproposal to Socialist Realism

Theory of History
I.   The Basic Positions of the Unification View of History
II.  The Laws of Creation
III. The Laws of Restoration
IV. Changes In History
V. Traditional Views of History
VI. Comparative Analysis of Providential View, Materialist View, and Unification View

Epistemology
I. Traditional Epistemologies
II. Unification Epistemology
III. Kant's and Marx's Epistemologies from the Perspective of Unification Thought

Logic
I.   Traditional Systems of Logic
II.  Unification Logic
III. An Appraisal of Traditional Systems of Logic from the Perspective of Unification Thought

Methodology
I.   Historical Review
II.  Unification Methodology - The Give-and-Receive Method
III. An Appraisal of Conventional Methodologies from the Perspective of Unification Thought

Appendix
I.   Principle of Mutual Existence, Mutual Prosperity and Mutual Righteousness
II.  Three Great Subjects Thought
III. Significance of the Four Great Realms of Heart and the Three Great Kingships

Notes

Bibliography

Ontology

The word ontology, as it has been used in philosophy, originates from the Greek word Ontologia, which consists of onta (what exists) and logos (logic). Ontology is that field of philosophy which deals with the funda-mental matters of existence. Likewise, in Unification Thought, ontology deals with the common attributes of all created beings, the way they exist, their movements, and so on, all based on the Divine Principle view of God’s creation.

Hence, Unification Thought ontology deals with all created beings, including human beings. However, since the human being is the lord of dominion over all things and occupies a position different from that of all other created beings, the human being will be discussed in more detail in a separate chapter, the “Theory of the Original Human Nature.” We can note that, whereas the Theory of the Original Image deals with God, ontology in Unification Thought deals primarily with all things.

In this ontology, we will ascertain whether or not the attributes of God, as they are explained in the Theory of the Original Image, are actually manifested in all things and, if so, how. If it can be shown that the attributes of God are universally manifested in all things then the veracity of the Theory of the Original Image becomes more certain and persuasive. Therefore, ontology, which deals with the attributes of all things, can be described as a theory that confirms, in visible terms, the attributes of the invisible God. In other words, Unification ontology is a theory that supports the Theory of the Original Image, which itself, is a deductive theory based on the Divine Principle.

Today, the natural sciences, which deal with all things, have made rapid progress. Yet, in most cases, scientists have been observing the natural world from a purely objective point of view, without giving any consideration to God. Since all things were created according to the law of likeness, the scientific facts as observed by scientists can be expected to be in accordance with the attributes of God, and so the natural sciences will come to support the Theory of the Original Image. In fact, in Unification ontology it will be clarified that the achievements of the natural sciences today are indeed supporting the Theory of the Original Image.

According to the Divine Principle, human beings were created in the image of God (Gen. 1:27), and all things were created in the image of the human being. Prior to creating the universe, God first envisioned the image of the human being, which resembles God’s own image. Then, using the human image as the prototype, and in likeness to it, God formed the ideas of all things. This is called “creation in likeness.”

Because of the human fall, however, human beings, and their societies, lost their original nature and fell into an unprincipled state, even though all things of creation have remained as originally created. For this reason, we can never find in actual human beings or societies the way to solve our problems, in other words, the problem of existence, and the problem of relationship. This is why many saints and sages of the past have sought to understand the way for people to live, not by observing humanity but by observing the movements of the stars, the growth and decline of living beings, the changes of the four seasons, and so on. They were unable, however, to clarify why it is possible to obtain from the natural world, the truth for people and society. They obtained only a merely intuitive realization of the truth.

Unification Thought, on the other hand, maintains that since all things were created in the likeness of human beings, it is possible to know the original characteristics of human beings and society through observing the natural world. In the Theory of the Original Image, it was explained that a correct understanding of the attributes of God is the key to solving the problems of individuals and society. Yet, creation was made in like-ness; therefore, if we correctly understand the attributes of all things, then this can help us secure the key in solving actual problems. Consequently, ontology becomes another standard for solving existing questions.

In the ontology laid out here, each created being is called an “existing being.” Hence, ontology is the theory of existing beings. An existing being is examined from two points of view, namely, as an “individual truth being” and as a “connected being.”

An individual truth being refers to an individual being resembling the attributes of God, namely, the content of the Original Image, and it refers to an existing being considered as such, independently and without regard to any of its relationships with other beings. In actuality, of course, all existing beings have mutual relationships with one another, and when a being is seen in terms of these relationships it has with other beings, then that being is called a “connected being.” A connected being thus refers to the same individual truth being, but in this case we are seeing it from the viewpoint of its relationships to other beings.

Since all existing beings were created in the likeness of God, the image of each being resembles the Divine Image. The Divine Image includes the universal image and the individual image; therefore, an existing being has both a universal image and an individual image. Here, the universal image refers to Syungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin, whereas the individual image refers to those peculiar characteristics which each individual being possesses. Let us first discuss the universal image of an individual truth being, namely Syungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin.

I. Individual Truth Being

A. Syungsang and Hyungsang

First of all, every created being possesses the dual characteristics of Syungsang and Hyungsang. Syungsang refers to the invisible, immaterial aspect of created beings, such as their faculty and nature. Hyungsang refers to the visible aspect of created beings, such as mass, structure, and shape. In minerals, Syungsang is physicochemical character, and Hyungsang is structure, shape, and so on, composed of atoms and molecules.

Plants have their own peculiar Syungsang and Hyungsang. The Syungsang peculiar to plants is life, and the Hyungsang peculiar to plants is their cells and tissues, which compose their structure and shape-in other words, the body of a plant. Life is the consciousness latent within the body, and it possesses purposefulness and directiveness. The function of life is the ability to grow while maintaining itself as an individual being. Therefore, it can be said that life has autonomy. While plants possess their own peculiar Syungsang and Hyungsang, they also contain the elements of Syungsang and Hyungsang of the level of minerals. In other worlds, plants contain mineral matter.

In animals, there are aspects of Syungsang and Hyungsang that are peculiar to animals and so they exist on a level higher than that of plants. The Syungsang peculiar to animals is instinct, and the Hyungsang peculiar to animals is their structure and shape which includes sense organs and nerves. Animals have both mineral matter, which contains the Syungsang and Hyungsang of the mineral-level, and they also possess plant-level Syungsang and Hyungsang; all the cells and tissues of animals exist on this level.

The human being is a two-fold being of spirit self and physical self. Therefore, the Syungsang and Hyungsang of the human being are unique and are of a still higher level than those of the animals. The Syungsang unique to the human being is the “spirit mind,” which is the mind of the spirit self, and the Hyungsang unique to the human being is the spirit body. In a human physical self, the Syungsang is the physical mind and the Hyungsang is the physical body. Mineral matter is contained in the physical body, and in this sense the human being has mineral-level Syungsang and Hyungsang. The human physical body is also composed of cells and tissues, and therefore has plant-level Syungsang and Hyungsang as well. Like animals, the human being has sense organs and nerves, and hence the Syungsang and Hyungsang corresponding to animals. The animal-level Syungsang in human beings, namely, the instinctive mind, is called the “physical mind.” Thus, the human mind consists of the physical mind (instinctive mind) and the spirit mind. While the spirit mind pursues the values of truth, goodness, beauty, and love, the physical mind pursues a life of food, clothing, shelter, and sex. The original human mind (“original mind”) is the union of the spirit mind and physical mind.

Let us now discuss the spirit self of a human being. The physical self consists of the same elements as those of the natural world and has only a certain period of time for its existence. In contrast, the spirit self is made of spiritual elements, which can not be perceived with our physical senses; yet, the spirit self has an appearance no different from that of the physical self. When the physical self dies, the spirit self discards it-in much the same way as when we discard an article of clothing when it is old and worn out. Having discarded the physical self, the spirit self goes on to the spirit world, where it exists forever.


The spirit self is composed of the dual characteristics of Syungsang and Hyungsang. The Syungsang of the spirit self is the spirit mind, and its Hyungsang is the spirit body. The sensibilities of the spirit self are nurtured in its mutual relationship with the physical self. In other words, the sensibilities of the spirit self develop on the basis of the physical self. Therefore, when an individual dies after having practiced God’s love during life on earth, that individual’s spirit self will lead a life of joy filled with love in the spirit world. In contrast, those who commit evil acts while on earth can not but experience a life of suffering after death.

It is evident that human beings possess the Syungsang s and Hyungsangs of minerals, plants, and animals and, in addition, they possess a Syungsang and Hyungsang of a still higher level. When seen in this way, the human being can be regarded as the integration of all things, or as a microcosm of the universe. From this explanation, it becomes clear that, as the levels of existing beings ascend -from minerals to plants, to animals, and to human beings -the Syungsang s and Hyungsangs become more substantial and elaborate layer by layer. This may be called the “layered structure of Syungsang and Hyungsang in existing beings,” and it is illustrated in fig. 2.1.

It must be noted, however, that when God actually created the universe, in the sequence of minerals, plants, animals and human beings, He did not simply create human beings at the end by merely accumulating the previously existing and respective Syungsang s and Hyungsangs peculiar to minerals, plants, and animals, and then, adding to them the Syungsang and Hyungsang unique to human beings. Rather, in the process of creation, according to Unification Thought, God first formed or visualized, in His mind, the idea of a human being as a being of united Syungsang and Hyungsang. Only then did He form the ideas of animals, and then plants, and then minerals, one by one, by subtracting their specific elements from the Syungsang and Hyungsang of human beings and lowering their dimension. It must be realized then, that in the actual process of creation God followed the reverse order-that is, based on the ideas He had formed, He created actual minerals first, then plants and animals, and finally human beings. Therefore, from the viewpoint of the result, it would, indeed, appear that the human Syungsang and Hyungsang were made by simply accumulating the respective layers of the Syungsang s and Hyungsangs unique to minerals, then to plants, and finally to animals-but this is just a matter of appearance. That the human Syungsang and Hyungsang, diagrammatically, possess a layered structure, as was described earlier, has the following important implications.

First, such a layered structure implies that there is a certain continuity among the various layers within the Syungsang . Specifically, the human mind, which consists of spirit mind and physical mind, possesses conti-nuity between these two minds; hence, a human being can control the physical mind through the spirit mind. Furthermore, the human mind is connected to life, or autonomy. Even though, through the conscious mind, one can not usually control the autonomous nerves, it is well known that such control can become possible through training. Yoga practitioners, for example, can, through meditation, change the pace of their heartbeats.1 In addition, the human mind is connected with the Syungsang of minerals within the body. Also, the human mind is externally connected to the Syungsang of animals and plants. It is known that a human being with his or her power of mind can influence even material beings, as well as animals and plants, outside themselves without using physical means.2

In addition, it is said that animals, plants, and minerals respond to the human mind. In the case of plants, the Backster Effect, observed by Clive Backster, an American lie-detector technician, testifies to this fact.3 Furthermore, it has been reported that there may exist a certain perceptive ability even in the realms of minerals and elementary particles.4

Second, the layered structure of human Syungsang and Hyungsang provides important insights with regard to the question of life. Theists and atheists have continually argued about the existence or non-existence of God. Theists have always disagreed with atheists, claiming that life can not be created by humans, that only God can create life. No matter how much progress natural science may have made, it had not been able to present a reasonable scenario for the origin of life. Hence, for a long time the question of life had been the sole foothold on which theism could base its position. Today, however, that foothold is being threatened by atheists, since scientists now assert that they have reached the point where they can create life.

Can scientists then, indeed, create life? According to contemporary biology, the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) within the chromosomes of a cell contains four kinds of nitrogenous bases, which are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. The way in which these four different bases are arranged form the genetic information of a cell, which can be called the blueprint of a living organism. The structure and functions of a living organism are determined by this genetic information. Therefore, it can be said that living things, ultimately, are made through their DNA. Scientists today have become capable of synthesizing DNA. Therefore, materialists have come to conclude that God is quite unnecessary in explaining the phenomenon of life. They assert that it is not necessary to hold that God has existed from the beginning.

But, is the synthesis of DNA by scientists the same phenomenon as the creation of life? From the viewpoint of Unification Thought, it is not. Even if scientists are capable of synthesizing DNA, they will merely have succeeded in producing the Hyungsang aspect of life phenomena. Life is, in essence, the Syungsang aspect of life phenomena. Therefore, what scientists have become able to produce is not life itself, but simply the carrier of life. In a human being, the physical self, which is Hyungsang, carries the spirit self, which is Syungsang . One’s physical self comes from one’s parents, while one’s spirit self comes from God. Likewise, even if DNA does come from scientists (that is, even if science may synthesize DNA), life itself comes from God.

Figuratively, this point may be elucidated by using the example of a radio. A radio receiver is a device that converts electrical waves into sound waves. It receives the electrical waves coming from a broadcasting station and converts them into sound waves. Therefore, the fact that scientists have made a radio does not mean that they have made sound, since sound comes from the broadcasting station, being carried by the electrical waves. Likewise, the fact that scientists have synthesized DNA does not mean they have created life itself; it means, simply, that they have made a device that is capable of catching life.

The universe is a life field; it is permeated with life, which originates from God’s Syungsang . Once there appears a device that is capable of receiving life, then, and only then, can life appear. The device in question is precisely the special molecule called DNA. Such a conclusion can be derived from the concept of the layered structure of Syungsang and Hyung-sang .

B. Yang and Yin

Yang and Yin Is Another Dual Characteristic

We shall now discuss the yang and yin characteristics of the individual truth being. As stated in the Theory of the Original Image, Yang and Yin, another pair of dual characteristics in God, are the attributes of Syungsang and Hyungsang. This means that there are Yang and Yin characteristics in Syungsang and Yang and Yin characteristics in Hyungsang.

Let us first examine the yang and yin characteristics of the human Syungsang and Hyungsang. The human Syungsang is the mind, which possesses the faculties of intellect, emotion, and will. There are yang aspects and yin aspects in each of these faculties of the mind. The yang aspects of the intellect are clarity, good memory, distinctness, wittiness, and the like. The yin aspects of the intellect are vagueness, forgetfulness, unclear ideas, seriousness, and so on. The yang aspects of the emotion are pleasantness, loudness, joyfulness, excitement, and the like. The yin aspects of the emotion are unpleasantness, quietness, sorrow, composure, etc. The yang aspects of the will are activeness, aggressiveness, creative-ness, carefreeness, and other such qualities. Finally, the yin aspects of the will are passiveness, tolerance, conservativeness, carefulness, and so on.


With regard to the Hyungsang, or the physical body, protuberant parts, protrusions, convex parts, the front side, and so on, are the yang aspects; whereas sunken parts, orifices, concave parts, the back side, etc., are the yin aspects. These points are systematically arranged in table 2.1.

In a similar way, in animals, plants, and minerals there are yang and yin in the Syungsang as well as in the Hyungsang. Animals sometimes behave actively and sometimes they do not. Plants sometimes grow and sometimes they wither; sometimes plants open their flowers, and sometimes they close them; trees grow upward into the sky and their roots grow downward into the soil. In minerals, physicochemical functions sometimes proceed intensely and at other times do not. These are yang and yin characteristics of the Syungsang . As for yang and yin characteristics of the Hyungsang, these include protuberances and orifices, high and low, front and back, light and dark, hard and soft, dynamic and static, pure and impure, hot and cold, day and night, summer and winter, heaven and earth, mountain and valley, and so forth. This is how we can under-stand yang and yin in the Syungsang and Hyungsang of the individual truth being.

An individual truth being is equipped with yang and yin as the attri-butes of Syungsang and Hyungsang. Further, each type of created being consists of a pair of individual truth beings, i.e., a yang substantial being and a yin substantial being: the former is equipped with relatively more yang characters than its partner and the latter is equipped with relatively more yin characters than its partner. We can find pairs of yang substantial being and yin substantial being at each level of beings. These are man and woman in human beings, male and female in animals, stamen and pistil in plants, cation and anion in minerals, and protons and electrons in atoms. It is said that there are male and female even in single-cell bacteria.5

Yang Substantial Being and Yin Substantial Being in Human Beings

Yang substantial being and yin substantial being are concepts often used to refer to man and woman. Then, concerning human beings, in concrete terms what are a yang substantial being and a yin substantial being? Since this issue has already been explained in detail in the Theory of the Original Image, I will merely summarize the content here.

In the Hyungsang (body), the difference between man and woman in terms of yang and yin is very clear. It is a quantitative difference: man’s body has more yang elements than woman’s, and woman’s body has more yin elements than man’s. On the other hand, in the Syungsang , the difference between man and woman in terms of yang and yin is a characteristic difference.

As explained earlier, man and woman both have yang and yin in each faculty of intellect, emotion, and will. There are, however, characteristic differences between man and woman with regard to yang and yin. For example, man and woman both have clarity, which is a yang character of the intellect, but the character of this clarity differs between man and woman. Generally, clarity in man has a more comprehensive character, whereas clarity in woman is more analytic and is oriented more toward details. As for sadness, a yin character of emotion, man’s sorrow tends to have a more painful character, while woman’s tends to have a grieving character. As for activeness, a yang character of the will, the character of a man’s activeness gives an impression more of hardness, whereas the character of a woman’s activeness gives more an impression of softness. Such differences between man and woman are characteristic differences.

For the sake of better understanding, let me cite the case of vocal music. In vocal music, the male tenor and the female’s soprano are both high sounds, and so correspond to yang, but they are characteristically different. Likewise, masculine bass and feminine alto are both low sounds, and so correspond to yin, but they are characteristically different. As shown through this comparison, the differences between yang and yin in the Syungsang is a characteristic difference and, therefore, masculinity appears in man and femininity appears in woman.

Let us now consider how the functions of yang and yin operated in the process of the creation of the universe. God’s creation can be compared to the creation of a great work of art in which yang and yin are in harmony. That is, it can be said that God has been conducting a grand symphony entitled “The Creation of Heaven and Earth.” God started with the “Big Bang,” 6 and then created the galaxies, the solar system, and the earth. On the earth, He created plants, animals, and finally human beings. In the playing of a symphony, various yangs and yins are operat-ing, such as high and low tones, strong and weak notes, long and short sounds, as well as yang instruments and yin instruments. In a similar way, in the process of the creation of the universe, various yangs and yins are considered to have been at work.

In our galaxy there are perhaps about 200 billion stars, arranged in a spiral. The areas of the galaxy where the stars are in dense concentration are yang, and the areas where the stars are sparse are yin. On the earth, lands and oceans were formed; the land is yang, and the ocean is yin. Mountain and valley, day and night, morning and evening, summer and winter, and so forth, are all expressions of yang and yin. Through the various yangs and yins operating in this way, the universe was created, the earth was formed, living things came into being, and humankind appeared. Human activities, also, are carried out through the operation of yangs and yins. Through the harmony between husband and wife, a family is formed. In artistic creation, harmonies between curved and straight lines, light and dark colors, big and small masses, and so on, are required.

In this way, both in the creation of the universe and in the activities of human society, yang and yin are operating in Syungsang and Hyungsang. The harmonious action and interaction of yang and yin is an indispensable factor in variety and development, as well as in the expression of beauty. Thus, we can come to a conclusion: God made yang and yin as the attributes of Syungsang and Hyungsang in order to express harmony and beauty through yang and yin.

C. Individual Image of the Individual Truth Being

In addition to the universal image of Syungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin, each individual truth being has unique attributes of its own. These unique attributes are the individual image of the individual truth being, and it goes without saying that this individual image originates from the Individual Image of the Original Image.

Individualization of Universal Image

The individual image is not an image separate from the universal image; rather, it is the universal image specialized, or individuated. Since the universal image is composed of Syungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin, the manifestation of these attributes in a different and unique way in each individual being is precisely the individual image of that particular individual being.

In the case of human beings, the personality (Syungsang ) and physical appearance (Hyungsang) of individuals differ from one another. Furthermore, the yang and yin of the Syungsang and the yang and yin of the Hyungsang of individuals differ from one another. For example, joy (a yang emotion) is expressed differently by different individuals, as is sorrow (a yin emotion). The nose (a yang part of the body) differs in size and shape from individual to individual. The ear canal (a yin part of the body) also differs in size and shape from individual to individual. Thus, the individual image can be understood as an individualization of the universal image.

Specific Differences and Individual Image

Those characteristics which a group of beings has in common are called taxonomic characteristics (Merkmal), and those taxonomic chara-cteristics peculiar to a certain specific concept are referred to as the “specific difference” of that being. For example, “human being,” “dog,” and “cat” are all specific concepts, and are grouped together, under the more generic concept of “animal.” The specific difference then, of human beings is “reason” since it is unique to the human being. (From the viewpoint of Unification Thought, both taxonomic characteristics and specific differ-ences are connected to the individualization or the particularization of the universal image.)

The taxonomic characteristics of a particular living being are a combination of the specific differences of the different levels. Consider, for example, the case of a human being. As a living being, the human being has the specific difference of an animal rather than that of a plant. Furthermore, as an animal, the human being has the specific difference of a vertebrate rather than that of an invertebrate. As a vertebrate, the human being has the specific difference of a mammal rather than that of a fish or a reptile. As a mammal, the human being has the specific difference of a primate rather than that of a carnivore or a rodent. As a primate, the human being has the specific difference of Hominidae rather than that of a long-armed ape. As Hominidae, the human being has the specific difference of Homo rather than that of an ape-man. Finally, as Homo, the human being has the specific difference of Homo sapiens rather than that of a primitive man.

In this way, the taxonomic characteristics of a human being include the specific differences from seven different taxonomic levels, namely, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Upon the foundation of the specific differences from each of the seven levels, the special and unique characteristics of an individual, namely, one’s individual image is established. Thus, it might be said that the individual image of a human being consists of those characteristics determined based on the set of specific differences taken from seven different levels.

In actual fact, however, the specific differences of each of these seven levels in human beings are only classifications created by biologists for the sake of convenience; God did not create human beings by successively piling up layer after layer of these various specific taxonomic differences. It is written in the Divine Principle that “Prior to creating human beings, God created the natural world by expressing partial reflections of the internal nature and external form He had conceived for human beings” (DP , 34). Thus, in creating the universe, what God first thought about was the complete and unified human being; yet, the human being was the last to actually be created.

Taking the image of the unitary human being, which He had envisioned in the very beginning, as the standard, God subsequently formed the conceptions of animals, plants, and minerals. In other words, in the process of conceptualization, God first developed the conception of human beings, and then that of animals, then plants, and finally minerals and heavenly bodies, proceeding downward. Then, with regard to the actual creation, the order followed was the exact opposite: God first created minerals and heavenly bodies, and then plants, animals, and finally human beings, proceeding in an upward fashion.

In conceptualizing, the way in which God visualized the conception of a human being was not by separately collecting together specific differences; rather, He immediately and comprehensively formed the conception of a human being as a complete, unitary whole, with all the relevant attributes (i.e., Syungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin). Moreover, the conception that came to God’s mind was not that of a man and a woman in the abstract, but rather that of a specific man (Adam) and a specific woman (Eve), with their concrete individual images, namely, the very ideas of Adam and Eve. Next, God subtracted, or abstracted out, certain pertinent qualities and elements from the unitary conception of the human being and transformed them, whereby He could create the conceptions of the various animals. In like fashion He subtracted certain qualities and elements from the conception of animals and transformed them, whereby He could create the conceptions of the various plants. Subsequently, He subtracted certain qualities and elements from the conception of plants and again transformed them, whereby He developed the conceptions of the various heavenly bodies and minerals.

At the animal stage, furthermore, in God’s downward formation of conceptions, God started from the conception of the higher and most complex animals and, by eliminating certain qualities and elements from it, and transforming it, gradually developed, step by step, the conceptions of lower and simpler animals. The same can be said of plants. Accordingly, if one observes human beings only from the phenomenological point of view of the actual creation, one may be left with the impression that the specific differences of progressive animal orders have simply been accumulated, layer upon layer; but it is important to realize that this is just an appearance. One needs to understand God’s conceptualization process, which preceded the actual creation process.

With regard to the microscopic world (e.g., molecules, atoms, and elementary particles), it should be noted that the individual image in this case is the same as the specific difference of the species to which the individual belongs. For example, every water molecule has the same shape and the same chemical character. The same thing can be said about atoms and elementary particles. Thus, in the microscopic world, the individual image is identical to the specific difference. The reason for this is that atoms and molecules exist as component elements of beings of higher levels. In the case of non-living beings, each being made of minerals (e.g., a mountain, a river, and a heavenly body) has its own individual image; with regard to the mineral elements, however, the individual image of each element is the same as its specific difference.

The same thing can be said for plants and animals. Their particular characteristics are their individual images. For example, the character-istics of a Rose of Sharon become the individual image of all Roses of Sharon, and the characteristics of a certain kind of chicken become the individual image of all chickens of the same kind. Thus, the individual image of all things differs from species to species, whereas the individual image of a human being differs from individual person to individual person.

Individual Image and Environment

The individual image of a human being is that special and unique character that each person possesses by nature, but included in it there is also an aspect of being able to change according to one’s environment. This is so because in every being -just as in the Original Image-there is an identity-maintaining aspect and a developmental aspect, in its existence and development. In other words, a human being exists and grows as the united being of an unchanging aspect and a changing aspect. Of these two, the unchanging aspect is essential, and the changing aspect is secondary. From the viewpoint of genetics, it can be said that the indi-vidual image corresponds to one’s inherited hereditary traits. In the course of growing, the individual image of a human being undergoes partial changes through its continual give and receive action with the environment. That portion of one’s individual image that is changed is called the “changed individual image.” That portion of the individual image that is changed can be regarded, in genetic terms, as one’s acquired character.

T. D. Lysenko (1898-1976) conducted experiments to transform autumn wheat into spring wheat through a process called vernalization, and claimed that the characteristics of living beings could change with the environment. Furthermore, he dismissed as mere metaphysics the genetic theories of Mendel and Morgan, according to whom there exists in living beings an unchanging character, which is inherited through genes. Lysenko ignored the unchanging aspect of living beings and emphasized only the aspect of being able to change through interaction with the environment. Lysenko’s theory was received with favor by J. V. Stalin (1879-1953), so much so that in the Soviet Union the Mendelist-Morganian scholars were ostracized. Later, however, Lysenko’s theory, through further experiments by scholars abroad, was found to be in error, and the Mendel-Morgan theory was reinstated as the correct one. In the end, it became evident that Lysenkoism had been a theory fabricated under the banner of the Soviet government, and had been intended simply to justify the materialist dialectic. Therefore, we can discount that point of view and confidently confirm that every thing exists as a unity of unchangeability and changeability.

With regard to one’s individual image, there still remains the question of whether or not the environment determines human nature. Communism claims that the human being is a product of the environment and insists, for instance, that a leader such as V. I. Lenin (1870-1924) could have been born only in the circumstances of the Russia of his time. From the perspec-tive of Unification Thought, however, the human being is the subject and ruler of the environment. In this view, a person who has been endowed at birth with an outstanding individual character can emerge as a leader (i.e., a subject) in order to bring the environment under control. Therefore, in the case of the Russian Revolution, it should be understood that Lenin, who was endowed at birth with an outstanding ability, appeared when the conditions inside and outside the country matured, and he led Russia to the Communist revolution, bringing the environment under control. If we understand the concept of the individual image, we can say that the environment influences only the changeable aspect of the individual image, but not the whole individual image.

II. Connected Being

A. What Is a Connected Being?

A Connected Being Seen from the Viewpoint of Structure

As stated earlier, each individual truth being contains within itself the correlative elements of subject and object centered on purpose, and these two elements are united through give and receive action. In addition, an individual truth being can also form a relationship of subject and object with other individual truth beings, whereby they can engage in give and receive action. In such a relationship, the individual truth being is called a “connected being.” In other words, when an individual being which has formed an inner four position foundation enters into a relationship with another individual being to form an outer four position foundation, this individual being (an individual truth being) forms a structure which resembles the two stage structure of the Original Image, and is called a connected being.

A Connected Being Seen from the Viewpoint of Purpose

When an individual being is seen as a being with dual purposes, namely, the “purpose for the individual” and the “purpose for the whole,” it can be called a connected being. Its purpose for the individual is to maintain its existence and development as an individual, and its purpose for the whole is to live for the existence and development of the whole.

As examples of dual purposes, let us consider the system of the created world, which extends from the level of elementary particles all the way up to the level of the universe. Elementary particles exist for the purpose of forming atoms, but at the same time, they maintain their own existence as elementary particles. Atoms exist for the purpose of forming molecules, but at the same time, they maintain their own existence as atoms. Molecules exist for the purpose of forming cells and matter, but at the same time they maintain their own existence as molecules. Cells exist for the purpose of forming tissues and organs, but at the same time they maintain their own existence as cells. Atoms and molecules also exist for the purpose of forming minerals, which form all material bodies, such as the earth. The earth exists for the purpose of forming the solar system, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the earth. The solar system exists for the purpose of forming the galaxy, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the solar system. The galaxy exists for the purpose of forming the universe, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the galaxy. Furthermore, the universe exists for the sake of humankind, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the universe.

Human beings are minute beings compared to the vast universe, but their value is greater than the totality of the whole universe. That is why the universe exists for the sake of human beings. In this way, all created beings have dual purposes, namely, their purpose for the individual and their purpose for the whole. Among the various purposes for the whole, which one is the highest purpose? In the created world, the highest purpose is to exist for the sake of human beings. For example, the earth has the purpose of forming the solar system, but at the same time it has the purpose of serving as the dwelling place for human beings. In the case of electrons, they revolve around the atomic nucleus in order to form an atom, but they also do this for human beings by forming all things, which exist for the sake of human beings, since things are objects of human dominion. Thus, each level of created beings-from elementary particles to the universe-exists both for the purpose of being part of a higher-level being and, at the same time, for the sake of humankind. The former purpose is called the “Hyungsang purpose for the whole,” and the latter purpose is called the “Syungsang purpose for the whole.”

For human beings, the purpose for the whole is to exist for the sake of God. Thus, all created beings, from elementary particles to the universe, and to human beings, exist as connected beings with dual purposes. Fig 2.2 illustrates a series of connected beings with dual purposes.


A Connected Being Seen from the Viewpoint of Relationship

We saw previously that the Original Image exists in a two-stage structure, namely, the inner four position foundation and the outer four position foundation. In the created world (including humans), all existing beings exist in a similar two-stage structure: they maintain inner four position foundations as individual truth beings, while at the same time forming outer four position foundations with other individual truth beings. Based on these inner and outer four position foundations, all existing beings are engaged in inner and outer give and receive actions. This structure is the two-stage structure of existence.


In forming an outer four position foundation, a person enters into give and receive action with other persons in six directions, namely, above and below, front and back, and right and left. Taking oneself as the center, above there exist one’s parents, superiors, and elder persons; below there exist one’s children, subordinates, and younger persons; to the front, there are teachers, senior colleagues, and leaders; to the back, there are students, junior colleagues, and followers; to the right, there are brothers and sisters, intimate friends, and intimate colleagues; and to the left, there are competitors, opponents, and strangers. The original way of human life is to form harmonious relationships in all six directions. In this way, a person is related to other persons in six directions. The same thing can be said about all things as well. An individual being, related to other beings in six directions, is a connected being. The six directions of human relationships are illustrated in Fig. 2.3.

Human beings also stand in a relationship with the natural environment. They are susceptible even to the influence of the stars; that is to say, it is commonly held that cosmic rays exert a certain influence on human physiological functions. Needless to say, human beings have a close connection to minerals, plants, and animals. In this sense as well, a human being is a connected being.

A Connected Being Seen from the Viewpoint of Position

In order for an individual being to exist, it necessarily has to be engaged in subject-object relationships with other beings. Hence, an individual being exists standing either in a subject position or in an object position in relation with another being. An individual truth being with such a “position of existence” is also called a connected being. I will explain this topic more in detail when I discuss the “position of existence.”

Materialist Dialectic and Interconnectedness

In relation to the connected being, one can critique the concept of “interconnectedness,” which is one of the main concepts in the materialist dialectic. Stalin, for instance, emphasized the interconnectedness of all things and branded as metaphysical the position of those who regarded things as separate beings:

Contrary to metaphysics, dialectics does not regard nature as an accidental agglomeration of things, of phenomena, unconnected with, isolated from, and independent of, each other, but as a connected and integral whole, in which things, phenomena, are organically connected with, dependent on, and determined by, each other.7

From the perspective of Unification Thought, all beings are created in the likeness of God’s dual characteristics, and therefore they exist not only as individual truth beings, but also as connected beings, whereby they are connected, directly or indirectly, with other individual truth beings. From this perspective, we regard the universe as one huge, organic body. The materialist dialectic explains this in terms of interconnectedness. Nevertheless, the materialist dialectic merely acknowledges the inter-connectedness of all things; it does not and can not offer any adequate explanation as to why things are interconnected. Furthermore, for a long time Communists asserted, on the basis of this theory of interconnected-ness, that the world laborers must unite for the sake of revolution. Such an assertion is a jump in logic.

In contrast, Unification Thought maintains that each being is inter-connected with other beings centering on a purpose. Interconnectedness is something inevitable because every existing being is related to other beings in six directions, above and below, front and back, and right and left. From this perspective, the entire universe can be regarded as an immense, organic body consisting of innumerable individual beings, all of which are mutually interconnected.

B. Subject and Object

I have already explained that an individual truth being has the universal image, which consists of Syungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin. Syungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin, exist in the relationship of subject and object. An individual truth being, which is a created being, is involved in yet another type of subject and object pair besides Syungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin. This pair consists of principal element and subordinate element (or principal being and subordinate being). This situation results from the fact that the created world is temporal and spatial in nature.

For example, the relationships between parents and children in a family, between teachers and students in a school, between the sun and the earth in the solar system, and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in a cell are neither a relationship of Syungsang and Hyungsang nor a relationship of yang and yin. These are relationships of principal element and subordinate element, or principal being and subordinate being.

This shows that there are three kinds of subject and object relationship in any individual truth being, namely, Syungsang and Hyungsang, yang and yin, and principal element (being) and subordinate element (being). All of these resemble the relationship of subject and object as seen in the dual characteristics of God.

The characteristic features of the relationship between subject and object are those of central and dependent, active and passive, dynamic and static, creative and conservative, initiating and responding, outgoing and modest, and so forth. This does not mean that a particular principal element and a particular subordinate element must have all of these characteristics at any given time; they may sometimes be in the relationship of central and dependent, sometimes in the relationship of active and passive, or outgoing and modest, and so forth. Generally speaking, the relationship between the subject and the object is that between one exercising dominion over the other and one receiving dominion from the other.

System of Individual Truth Beings in the Created World

Every existing being contains a correlative relationship of Syungsang and Hyungsang, yang and yin, and principal element (being) and subordi-nate element (being). This will be explained through a few selected examples of individual truth beings on different levels, extending from the cosmos (macrocosm) down to the smallest elementary particles (microcosm).

The cosmos, however big it may be, is nevertheless an individual truth being. It consists of the spirit world and the physical world (the earthly world). The spirit world is the invisible world, and the physical world is the visible world. These two worlds exist in a relationship of subject and object, which is the relationship between Syungsang and Hyungsang, as in the relationship between spirit self and physical self in a human being.

The universe (i.e., the physical world), in turn, is an individual truth being as well. The universe has a center, and around that center, about 200 billion galaxies (or nebulae) are revolving. In this particular relationship, the center of the universe is the principal element, and each galaxy is a subordinate element. These elements are in the relationship of subject and object. A galaxy, also, is an individual truth being. The galaxy in which we live, for instance, consists of a nucleus and about 200 billion stars. The galactic nucleus is the principal element, and the stars are subordinate elements; these two kinds of elements exist in the relationship of subject and object.

Our sun is one of the stars in our galaxy. The solar system, also, is an individual truth being. The solar system consists of the sun and nine planets. The sun and the planets are in the respective positions of principal element and subordinate elements, forming a relationship of subject and object. The earth, one of the planets in the solar system, is an individual truth being as well. The earth has a core, on one hand, and a surface and crust, on the other. These are the principal element (core) and the subo-rdinate element (surface and crust), forming a relationship of subject and object.

The surface of the earth can, likewise, be regarded as an individual truth being. The earth’s surface consists of natural things, and is inhabited by human beings. Human beings are the principal beings, and natural things are the subordinate beings. Human beings form nations, which are individual truth beings, consisting of a government and people, where the government is the principal element and the people collectively are the subordinate element.

A family, a unit of a nation, is also an individual truth being, consisting of parents and children, or husband and wife. Parents and children are principal and subordinate individuals, whereas husband and wife are yang and yin individuals; both of these are in the relationship of subject and object. An individual person, also, is an individual truth being, consisting of spirit self and physical self. In this case, spirit self and physical self are Syungsang and Hyungsang and they are in the relationship of subject and object.


If we now direct our attention to the physical self, it consists of principal and subordinate elements, the brain and the limbs. Within the human body (physical self), each cell is an individual truth being, consisting of a nucleus as the principal element and the cytoplasm as the subordinate element. The nucleus of the cell, in turn, is an individual truth being, consisting of chromosomes as the principal element and the nuclear sap as the subordinate element. Each chromosome, also, is an individual truth being, consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the principal element and proteins as the subordinate element. DNA is a molecule, which in itself is an individual truth being, consisting of nitrogenous bases (purines and pyrimidines) as the principal element and sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate as the subordinate element. Bases, sugar, and phosphate are formed by atoms. An atom is an individual truth being, consisting of elementary particles: protons and Neutrons as the principal element and electrons as the subordinate element. An elementary particle is an individual truth being as well, consisting of a principal element and a subordinate element.

Hence, there are many levels of individual truth beings in the universe, from elementary particles to the cosmos. Each of them consists of correlative elements of subject and object. When an individual truth being is seen from the viewpoint of a higher-level individual truth being, the lower-level being is a component of the higher-level being. For example, the solar system is an individual truth being, consisting of the sun and the planets; when, however, it is seen from the viewpoint of the galaxy (a higher-level individual truth being), the solar system is a component of the galaxy. This means that an “individual truth being” is a relative concept. Moreover, “subject” and “object” are relative concepts as well. For example, the sun is subject to the planets, but in the larger galaxy, it is object to the nucleus of the galaxy. The integrated system of individual truth beings and the correlative elements of subject and object within them are laid out in fig. 2.4.

Types of Subject and Object

The concept of subject and object in Unification Thought differs in important ways from the concept of subject and object in traditional philosophy. This difference must be explained. From an epistemological perspective, a “subject” in traditional philosophy refers to that which cognizes, that is, the consciousness, or the self, whereas an “object” refers to that which is cognized. Thus, an object refers to something which exists either within the consciousness (as an idea or concept) or outside the consciousness (a thing). From an ontological perspective, or in a practical sense, a subject in traditional philosophy refers to an existing being with consciousness (i.e., a human being), whereas an object refers to a being with which the subject is faced. In short, in traditional philosophy subject and object refer to the relationship between consciousness (or the human being) and the thing with which it is faced.

In Unification Thought the concepts of subject and object carry a different meaning. These concepts refer not only to the relationship between a human being and a thing, but also to the relationship between one human being and another human being, and to that between a thing and another thing. These relationships are of four types, as follows:

(1) Original Type: The original type refers to a relationship that is everlasting and universal from the perspective of God’s creation. Examples of such an original type are the relationships between parents and children, husband and wife, teacher and students, star and planets, cell nucleus and cytoplasm, and atomic nucleus and electrons. These relationships never change.

(2) Temporary Type: Relationships that last for only a limited time are of the temporary type. These relationships frequently occur in day-to-day life. One example is the relationship between a lecturer and the audience, which is established when a lecture is being given. Even in relationships of the original type, the positions are sometimes reversed to create a relationship of the temporary type. In a family, for instance, should the husband become absent or sick, the wife will temporarily take on the responsibility of her husband, and when the parents are sick or become old, the children will take on the responsibility of the parents. Such relationships can be regarded as being of the temporary type. But even in such cases, the original type does not totally disappear; thus, they are simply relationships of a temporary type based on the original type.

(3) Alternating Type: When the subject alternates with the object, the relationship is of the alternating type. An example of this is a dialogue between two persons: the one who speaks is the subject, and the one who listens is the object. In a dialogue, however, the person speaking and the person listening alternate with each other-hence, this is a relationship of the alternating type.

(4) Undetermined Type: In certain relationships, the human being freely decides which element is the subject and which is the object. These are called relationships of the undetermined type. In this case, subject and object are not determined objectively. For example, in the relationship between animals and plants, animals discharge carbon dioxide, which is used by plants, and plants, in turn, discharge oxygen, which is used by animals. From the perspective of the flow of oxygen, plants can be regarded as the subject; but, from the perspective of the flow of carbon dioxide, animals can be regarded as the subject. The relationship of subject and object changes depending upon which being a person emphasizes, namely, according to the will of the person. The subject and object in such a case fall under the undetermined type.

Give and Receive Action

When a correlative relationship of subject and object is formed centering on a common purpose, either between two elements within a being or between one being and another being, there comes about an action of giving and receiving a certain element or force. This kind of action between subject and object is called the “give and receive action.” Through this action, the entities involved maintain their existence and are able to move, change, and develop.

For example, when students enroll in a school, a correlative relationship is established between students and teachers. Based on this correlative relationship, the teachers provide instruction, and the students gain new learning. This is a give and receive action. Through this action, knowledge and techniques are transmitted, and also the students’ personality and character are nurtured. Thus, students will feel grateful to the teachers and the teachers will feel satisfied with their vocation.

The following example can more concretely explain the meaning of a correlative relationship. When a man and a woman become acquainted with each other, whether by some chance opportunity or by special arrangement, they form what is called a “correlative relationship.” If, subsequently, they get married, create a family, and live a life of love, they are engaging in what is called “give and receive action.” The solar system is another example: the sun and the planets have existed in a correlative relationship for 4.6 billion years, giving and receiving through universal gravitation whereby the planets are revolving around the sun, and in this way they maintain the solar system.

In God, there are the identity-maintaining and the developmental aspects. In the identity-maintaining aspect, Original Syungsang and Original Hyungsang engage in give and receive action centering on Heart, forming a union or harmony. This is the identity-maintaining aspect of God, the foundation for His eternity and self-existence. Also, Original Syungsang and Original Hyungsang engage in give and receive action centering on purpose (i.e., the purpose of creation), engendering multiplied beings, or new beings. This is the developmental aspect of God. The first relationship is described as an “identity-maintaining give and receive action,” and the second one is described as a “developmental give and receive action.”

In a similar fashion, there are identity-maintaining give and receive actions and developmental give and receive actions in the created world, which is created in the image of God. For instance, in our galaxy give and receive action takes place between its nucleus and about 200 billion stars. The shape of our galaxy has the form of a convex lens and is constant, and all the stars perform revolving motions while keeping their own particular orbits. From this perspective, the galaxy has an unchanging aspect. On the other hand, it is said that in the beginning the galaxy revolved slowly, but as time went on, it came to revolve faster and faster. Also, it is well known that old stars die and new stars are born. Thus, the galaxy has the aspect of change as well. Hence, there are aspects of both identity-maintaining give and receive action and developmental give and receive action in the galaxy.

Furthermore, within God’s Syungsang , the correlative elements of the Inner Syungsang and the Inner Hyungsang are in the relationship of subject and object, and they are engaged in give and receive action centering either on Heart or on purpose, whereby they form either a union or produce a new being, respectively. This is called “inner give and receive action.” On the other hand, Original Syungsang and Original Hyungsang are also engaged in give and receive action centering either on Heart or on purpose, whereby they form either a union or produce a new being, respectively. This is called “outer give and receive action.”

This two-stage action, namely, inner give and receive action and outer give and receive action, forms the two-stage four position foundation, which is called the “two-stage structure of God.” This two-stage structure as found in God applies also to the created world. Hence, every being internally has correlative elements of subject and object within itself, and at the same time, it is externally related to other beings in a correlative relationship of subject and object. For example, in the relationship between a human being and all things, the human being, through the inner give and receive action, engages in thinking, and then, through the outer give and receive action, cognizes things and exercises dominion over them.

There are five different types of give and receive action, which I will explain next. What distinguishes one type from another is whether or not the subject and/or object possess consciousness. The five types of give and receive action are as follows:

(1) Bi-Conscious Type: In a classroom, a teacher is the subject and the students are the objects, and they engage in a give and receive action wherein both sides are conscious of that action. This is called a give and receive action of the bi-conscious type. The subject and the object both have will and they are both conscious, not only in cases like this, between one human being and another, but also in such cases as those between a human being and an animal, and even between one animal and another. Such relationships as these are of the bi-conscious type.

(2) Uni-Conscious Type: When a teacher writes words on a blackboard with chalk, a give and receive action takes place between the teacher and the chalk. In this case, the teacher acts consciously, whereas the chalk does not. One side alone (the subject) has consciousness while the other side (the object) does not. This is called a give and receive action of the uni-conscious type.

(3) Unconscious Type: Animals inhale the oxygen emitted by plants and exhale carbon dioxide. On the other hand, during the daytime plants absorb the carbon dioxide emitted by animals and release oxygen through photosynthesis. In this instance, animals do not consciously exhale carbon dioxide for the sake of plants, nor do plants consciously release oxygen for the sake of animals. Both sides act unconsciously in this exchanging of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Such a case in which both parties engage in a give and receive action unconsciously, even if one or both parties may have consciousness, is called a give and receive action of the unconscious type.

(4) Heteronomous Type: When neither the subject nor the object possesses consciousness, and both are induced heteronomously by the will of a third party to engage in a give and receive action, the relationship is called a give and receive action of the heteronomous type. For example, the sun and the earth engage, according to natural law, in give and receive action according to God’s purpose of creation, even though they are not conscious of it. This is a give and receive action of the heteronomous type. In another example, the various parts of a watch engage in give and receive action with one another according to the will of the person who made the watch. Such kinds of give and receive actions are of the heteronomous type.

(5) Contrast Type (Collation Type): When we human beings contrast two or more things and therein discover harmony between them, we regard them as engaging in a kind of give and receive action. This is called give and receive action of the contrast type, or collation type. In this relationship, the human observer establishes (consciously or unconsciously) one element as the subject and another as the object, contrasts them, and thus regards them, subjectively, as engaging in give and receive action.

Creation or appreciation of artwork is a typical example of a give and receive action of the contrast type, in which a human subject intention-ally contrasts the objective elements. In creating a work of art, the artist adjusts and contrasts colors, shades of light, sounds, and so forth, in order to harmonize these elements. In art appreciation, the appreciator, when contemplating a work of art (a painting, a musical piece, etc.) will also contrast the various elements within the artwork in order to find harmony in them.

Give and receive action of the contrast type can also be found in the process of thinking. For example, the judgment “this flower is a rose” is made by regarding “this flower” as the subject and “a rose” as the object, and then contrasting them. In the process of cognition, contrast takes place between the sense content (such as shapes, colors, and fragrances) coming from the outside world and the prototypes (ideas) within the human subject. In Unification Epistemology, these processes are called “collation,” and are instances of a give and receive action of the contrast type.

Correlatives and Opposites

As stated earlier, in each individual truth being there always exist paired elements of subject and object. These paired elements are called “correlatives.” The correlative elements of subject and object form a correlative relation centering on a purpose and engage in harmonious give and receive action, forming either a union or a multiplied being. In Unification Thought, this is called the “law of give and receive action,” or simply, “give and receive law.” This understanding contrasts with that of the materialist dialectic, which asserts that within every being there exist “opposites,” or “contradictory elements,” and that things can develop only through a struggle between these opposites.

Do things exist and develop through a harmonious give and receive action between correlatives (as Unification Thought asserts), or do they exist and develop through a struggle between opposites (as the materialist dialectic asserts)? It should be noted, first, that Unification Thought and the materialist dialectic agree on one point, and that is that in every being there are always two elements. In actual development, however, the two positions are diametrically different. In order to determine which one is correct, we need only to compare the nature of the two elements in both cases. If there is a common purpose, we can say that the two elements are correlatives; if there is no common purpose between them, we must say that the two elements are opposites. Another way is to examine whether the interaction between the two elements is harmonious or conflictive. If we find the interaction to be harmonious, then it is give and receive action; if, instead, we find it to be conflictive, then it is dialectical action. Also, we can determine which one is correct if we examine the positions of the two elements; in other words, if they are different in position (subject and object) they are correlatives, and if they are equal in position (subject and subject, for example) they are opposites.

Marx asserted that things develop through the dialectic, but he only dealt with social problems, and did not cite a single example that could indicate that natural phenomena develop through the struggle of opposites. Thus, in order to compensate for this weakness in Marx’s thought, Engels studied the natural sciences and compiled his conclusions in the books Dialectics of Nature and Anti-Dühring; thereby, Engels announced that he had reached the conclusion that “nature is the proof of dialectics.” 8 In other words, he asserted that all natural phenomena, without exception, follow the dialectic.

If, however, one carefully examines the natural phenomena cited by Engels, one finds that what is actually occurring in those phenomena are not struggles but rather harmonious actions centered on a common purpose. A more detailed explanation of this point is given in The End of Communism by Sang Hun Lee,9 and it is omitted here for lack of space. To conclude, nature can not be said to be the “proof of dialectics”; instead, nature is the “proof of give and receive action.” Struggles do exist, but only among human beings in society; these struggles are a result of the human fall.


C. Mode of Existence

Now, I will explain the manner in which all created beings exist, that is, their mode of existence. The mode of existence of created beings is their motion in time and space. Hence, “mode of existence” is a spatio-temporal concept applicable only in the created world. Since God is the absolute being, God does not literally perform such motion. Therefore, there is no concept of a mode of existence in the Original Image. There is, however, a prototype within the Original Image, which corresponds to the mode of existence in the created world.

1. Circular Motion

When, in the created world, two elements or beings in the relationship of subject and object engage in a give and receive action, centering on a common purpose, then the result is that both union and motion appear simultaneously. Purpose itself is not an existing being, and the union is merely a state that arises as a result of give and receive action; therefore, the actual participants in the motion of give and receive action are the two elements (beings) in the roles of subject and object. The center of the give and receive action lies not in some intermediary position between the subject and the object, but within the subject itself. Accordingly, the motion of this give and receive action can not but become a subject-centered circular motion. This circular motion is illustrated in fig. 2.5. In an atom, for instance, electrons revolve around the nucleus; and, like-wise, in the solar system, planets revolve around the sun.

What, then, is the reason why created beings necessarily engage in circular motion? In the world of God there exists no time or space and, therefore, no motion. However, even though in God there is no actual mode of existence, or circular motion, still there must exist in the Original Image some prototype of the circular motion that exists in the created world. This prototype is the round, harmonious and smooth nature of the give and receive action between Original Syungsang and Original Hyungsang. In the Original Image, Original Syungsang and Original Hyungsang perform harmonious give and receive action centering either on Heart or on purpose. When the round and harmonious nature of the give and receive action in God is expressed (symbolically) in terms of time and space, it becomes circular motion.

The world of created beings is the symbolic expression of God. For instance, the vastness of the ocean symbolizes the vastness of God’s mind; the heat of the sun symbolizes the warmth of God’s love; and the light of the sun symbolizes the brightness of God’s truth. Likewise, circular motion in the created world symbolizes something in God, namely, the round and harmonious nature of the give and receive action within God. Harmonious give and receive action is the expression of love centered on Heart. In other words, circular motion symbolizes the roundness and, at the same time, the love in God. Love has no corners or angles, and is expressed in a circular form. Thus, if we were to express the Original Image in a diagram, such a diagram would be of a circular, or spherical, form.

God is formless and has no definite appearance; yet, God has the potentiality to appear in any form. In other words, God, who is formless, has a limitless number of forms. Compare this to the phenomenon of water. If placed in a rectangular container, water takes a rectangular shape; if placed in a triangular container, water takes a triangular shape; and if placed in a round container, it takes a round shape. In other words, water can take on any form, depending on its container. Therefore, it has a limitless number of forms. Of all these forms, however, the one most typical of water is the spherical form. We can know this from the fact that when a drop of water falls, it assumes a spherical form.

Similarly, God can manifest Himself in the form of waves, in the form of wind, in the form of fire, and so forth, but if we were to choose a typi-cal form of God, it would be a spherical form. In this sense, the Original Image can be expressed in a circular or a spherical form. This is why all things, in resemblance to the Original Image, basically have a spherical form. Atoms, the earth, the moon, the sun, stars, and so on, all have a spherical form. Even plants and animals can be said to have a spherical form since the starting point of the growth of a plant is a seed, and the starting point of the growth of an animal is an egg. These have an essentially spherical form. As explained above, circular motion in all things originates from the roundness of the give and receive action in the Original Image. At the same time, it originates from the representative circular or spherical shape of the Original Image.

There is yet another reason why the motion performed when a subject and an object engage in give and receive action is circular. Circular motion is a necessary representation of the give and receive action. If the object did not revolve around the subject, but instead moved in a straight line, then the object would ultimately depart from the subject. If that were to occur, subject and object would become unable to perform give and receive action, and if they could not perform give and receive action, the created being could not exist, for it is through such give and receive action that the forces for existence, multiplication, and action come into being. Accordingly, in order for subject and object to engage in give and receive action, the object must maintain a continuous relationship with the subject-and in order for that to happen, the object must go around the subject.

2. Rotation and Revolution

Next, let me explain rotation and revolution. Any individual being engaged in circular motion is simultaneously performing two kinds of motion, namely, rotation and revolution. The reason for this is that every individual being is simultaneously both an individual truth being and a connected being. This is so because each individual being engages in internal give and receive action as well as external give and receive action. As a result of these two kinds of give and receive action, two kinds of circular motion come into being. The circular motion produced through the internal give and receive action is rotation, and the circular motion produced through the external give and receive action is revolution. For example, the earth revolves around the sun while rotating itself; an electron revolves around the atomic nucleus while rotating itself. Rotation and revolution, then, are the results of the internal and external motions of things, and the reason these two types of motion exist is that they resemble the round and harmonious nature of the inner give and receive action and the outer give and receive action within the Original Image.

Through these inner and outer give and receive actions, inner and outer four position foundations are formed centering on purpose (unlike in the Original Image, where the center can be Heart, in created beings the center is always purpose, in any kind of four position foundation). In the formation of the inner and outer four position foundations, the result is either a union or a new being. Here, let us examine the case in which the result is a union.

In the Original Image, when the result is a union, an inner identity-maintaining four position foundation and an outer identity-maintaining four position foundation are formed through the inner give and receive action and the outer give and receive action, respectively. That is the “two-stage structure of the Original Image.” In resemblance to this structure, every created being forms an inner identity-maintaining four position foundation and an outer identity-maintaining four position foundation, which together constitute the “two-stage structure of existence.” Give and receive action takes place on the basis of the four position foundation, and when give and receive action takes place, circular motion always appears. Accordingly, in the formation of inner and outer four position foundations, inner and outer give and receive actions take place and, at the same time, inner and outer circular motions take place. The inner circular motion is rotation, and the outer circular motion is revolution.

3. Forms of Circular Motion

In actuality, spatial circular motion can be seen, in the created world, only in astronomical bodies such as stars and planets and in elementary particles and atoms. In other cases, we do not see literal circular motion. Plants, for example, are fixed in certain positions, and animals, though they are moving, are not performing circular motion. In these cases, although the basic mode of their existence is circular motion, it has been modified to take other forms. The reason the circular motion is modified is because each created being must achieve its particular purpose of creation, that is, its purpose for the whole and its purpose for the individual. There are three categories of circular motion: basic circular motion, transformed circular motion, and spiritual circular motion.

a) Basic Circular Motion

There are two types of basic circular motion, namely, “circular motion in space” and “circular motion in time.”

i) Circular Motion in Space


Spatial circular motion is physical, repetitive circular motion, and examples are the rotation and revolution of celestial bodies and elementary particles. These are the spatial representation of the identity-maintaining give and receive action within the Original Image. They are circular motion in the literal sense, and since they nearly always maintain the same orbit, this can be called “repetitive motion.”

ii) Circular Motion in Time (Spiral Motion)

The repetition of life cycles, or the succession of generations of living beings, can also be regarded as a kind of circular motion, that is, a spiral motion. Let us consider the growth of plants. A seed puts forth a new sprout, which grows into a plant; the plant blooms, bears fruits, and produces numerous new seeds. The new seeds, greater in number than the initial one, again sprout, grow, and bear new fruits. A similar process occurs in the development of animals. A fertilized egg grows; the young are born; the young grow to maturity, engage in reproduction, and again new fertilized eggs are made. The new fertilized eggs, greater in number than the initial one, again grow; the young are born; the young grow to maturity and engage in reproduction. Thus, both plants and animals preserve their species by repeating life cycles, or life histories.

This succession of generations, intended for the preservation of the species, is a kind of circular motion, having the following characteristic features: (1) it possesses purposefulness, (2) it develops through time, and (3) it has the nature of proceeding in distinct stages. This is called a “spiral motion,” and it is illustrated in fig. 2.6.

Let us consider now the significance of the fact that living beings make spiral motion, that is, the preservation and multiplication of their species. All things are the objects of joy and at the same time the objects of dominion for human beings. Thus, the preservation and multiplication of species in living beings corresponds to the succession of generations and the multiplication of human beings.

The physical self of the human being is not an eternal being. Only the spirit self, which matures on the basis of the physical self, lives eternally. When the spirit self becomes perfected, the physical self dies, and the mature spirit self goes on to live eternally in the spirit world. (Yet, because of the human fall people went to the spirit world with their spirit selves still unperfected.) The perfection of the spirit self is the realization of the purpose of creation, which means that human beings grow, perfect their individuality, get married, multiply, and have dominion over all things-in other words, they fulfill the three great blessings (Gen.1:28). Thus, human beings are created to live during a certain period of time on earth and they maintain their species through a succession of generations. Also, all living beings, which exist as objects to human beings, preserve their species through a succession of generations, and multiply in order to continue as the objects of dominion for human beings on earth. Such circular motion in time is the temporal manifestation of the developmental give and receive action within the Original Image.10

b) Transformed Circular Motion

There are two kinds of transformed circular motion, namely, motion with a fixed nature, and motion with an alternative nature.

i) Motion with a Fixed Nature

This refers to the situation wherein the circular motion is fixed in place in order for an existing being to achieve its specific purpose of creation. For example, a stationary radio satellite is fixed at a certain position in space for the sake of achieving its purpose. In the case of the earth where humans live, if the immeasurable atoms forming the earth were to move about randomly, then the earth would take on a more gaseous state, and humans would not be able to live on it. If the earth is to be a dwelling place for humans, the atoms that constitute it must be fixed firmly in place, united with each other in order to form solid ground. Therefore, the atoms forming the earth perform transformed circular motion (rigid chemical bonding), maintaining their fixed positions in order to form an appropriate dwelling place for human beings, in other words, to realize their purpose for the whole.

Similarly, the cells forming the tissues of living beings are positioned and fixed unitedly with respect to one another. For example, the cells forming the heart of an animal are fixed in place and united with one another, which enables the heart to contract and expand in performing its function. If the heart cells were to move about independently, the heart would not be able to perform its proper function.

ii) Motion with an Alternative Nature

In animals, instead of the cells performing circular motion, the blood and lymph circulate throughout the body, connecting the cells, thereby bringing the same result as if the cells themselves were performing circular motion. In plants, also, water and minerals are absorbed by the roots and circulate throughout the body of the plant through the vessels and tracheids of the xylem. The nutrients which have been manufactured in the leaves travel through the sieve tubes of the phloem, connecting all cells. The overall result of this is the same as if the cells themselves were making circular motion. In this way, blood and lymph, water and nutrients circulate, in place of the circular motion of cells. This is called circular motion with an alternative nature, or simply, motion with an alternative nature.

In the earth, also, there are the convective currents in the mantle, the movement of the plates (called plate tectonics), and so on, which manifest the effects of circular motion. They are also regarded as motion with an alternative nature. The circulation of goods and money in the economy are also examples of motion with an alternative nature.

c) Spiritual Circular Motion (Syungsang Circular Motion)

The give and receive action between the spirit mind and the physical mind in human beings is not a physical kind of circular motion, but rather a spiritual kind of circular motion in the sense that the physical mind responds to the desires of the spirit mind. Accordingly, this is spiritual circular motion, or circular motion on the Syungsang level. Also, in the sense that the object behaves as the subject desires, the harmonious give and receive action between one person and another in a family or in society is circular motion on the Syungsang level, or spiritual circular motion. For example, when parents love their children and instruct them well, the children obey their parents well. This, too, comes in the category of spiritual circular motion.

4. Growth and Developmental Motion

Development from the Viewpoint of Unification Thought

Now I will explain the concepts of growth and development in order to clarify the Unification view of development. Living beings are endowed with life. Life refers to the autonomy and dominion of the principle, or the conscious energy (in other words, the consciousness with energy) latent within living beings. The growth of living beings is guided by this life, the autonomy and dominion of the principle, which is the unity of consciousness and energy latent in living beings; thus, this motion of conscious energy is none other than the motion of life.

Autonomy is the ability to direct one’s own motion without any influence from other beings. The earth revolves around the sun, but it does so by following natural law in a merely mechanical manner. Living things, however, do not just follow laws mechanically. They are able to control themselves as they grow, while coping with various kinds of situations in their environment. This is the meaning of “autonomy of the principle.” On the other hand, “dominion of the principle” refers to the function or ability of exerting an influence on an existing being’s surround-ings. For example, when the seed of a plant is sown, a sprout emerges, a trunk grows, and leaves come out. This force of growing is the action of the autonomy of the principle. At the same time, plants have an influence on their surroundings11; they provide animals with oxygen, and attract bees and butterflies by blooming. This aspect is the dominion of the principle. Life, then, when viewed from the aspect of growth, is autonomy, and when viewed from the aspect of influencing its surroundings, is dominion.

The growth of living beings, due to the life inherent within them, is developmental motion. All created beings are endowed with the purpose of creation (the purpose of being created). To say that living beings are endowed with the purpose of creation means that the life force within living beings is conscious of that purpose. Accordingly, the growth of a living being is a movement aiming towards a goal (purpose) from the very beginning.

Development thus has a definite purpose, and a direction determined by its inner life force. That is to say, there is life within the seed of a plant, and it is this life which causes the seed to grow (develop) toward the goal of becoming a tree bearing fruits. Also, there is life within the fertilized egg of an animal, and it is this life which causes the egg to grow (develop) toward the goal of becoming an adult animal.

Let us now consider the particular case of the development of the universe as a whole. According to the Big Bang theory, about fifteen billion years ago the universe started out as a mass of energy, of extremely high temperature and density, all concentrated in one point. A “great” explosion took place, and the universe began to expand. After the initial explosion, the hot, swirling gases eventually cooled and condensed to form the many galaxies. In each galaxy, numerous stars came into being, some of which were surrounded by planets. One of the stars with planets was the sun, and one of its planets was the earth. Life came into being on the earth, and finally human beings appeared.

This is the essence of today’s scientific view of the development of the universe. Considering this, we may ask if the development of the universe is much different from the growth (development) of living beings? And, if it is different, then how is it different? Is it simply development based on physicochemical laws? Or, is it a development of life, in the same way as living beings?

If, when considering the development of the entire universe, we look at that process over a comparatively short period of time, we may only be able to discern physicochemical laws at work. If, however, we look at that process over a much longer period of time-say, several billion years-we would be able to discern that the universe, while certainly following physicochemical laws, has yet been developing in a definite direction. This tells us that there has been a goal in the development of the universe. That goal is the appearance of human beings, who are intended to have dominion over the universe. In other words, the universe has been developing, seemingly in the expectation of the appearance of human beings. What has given this kind of direction to the development of the universe is the consciousness latent within the universe. This can be called “cosmic consciousness,” or “cosmic life.”

Just as in the development of a plant there is at first a seed which sprouts, grows and finally bears fruit, so too, in the development of the universe we can consider it to be the case that, in the beginning, the universe began as a seed, which has been growing until today. The human being is the ultimate fruit of the universe. Accordingly, just as bearing fruit is the goal of a plant, so also the human being was the goal of the development of the universe. It was stated earlier that growth is a phenomenon that exists only in living things, but seen from the perspective of so vast a period of time as fifteen billion years, one can realize that the entire universe has, in fact, been growing.

Communist Perspective on Development

Next, let us examine the Communist perspective on development. Development is an irreversible, purposeful movement that proceeds toward a definite goal. Yet, Communists never described development as a motion proceeding toward a goal. Communists maintain that develop-ment takes place through the contradiction inherent within a thing, and it only admits to lawfulness and necessity, denying any sense of purpose. Why do they deny purpose (or goal)? The reason is that only will or reason can establish a purpose; and if there were reason that established purpose at the beginning of the universe, that could be none other than the reason of God. From this it follows that God has established the purpose of the universe. If God were accepted, atheistic Communism would inevitably fall, which is why Communists never admitted purpose.

In contrast, Unification Thought, in addition to describing develop-ment in terms of necessity and lawfulness, asserts that there is purpose in development. This is because the motive force of development is life, and life is purposive and conscious energy. Necessity and lawfulness in development are all for the sake of the realization of this purpose. In other words, all created beings are endowed with necessity and lawful-ness so that they realize their purpose, that is, the purpose of creation.

As stated in the Theory of the Original Image, within God’s Syungsang , centering on purpose, the Inner Syungsang (reason) and the Inner Hyung-sang  (law) are engaged in give and receive action whereby Logos is formed. Logos is the union of reason and law. Law already existed within God’s Inner Hyungsang, prior to His creation of the universe, and it existed for the realization of the purpose of creation. In other words, law had been prepared, from the very beginning, for the realization of purpose.

Communist materialism denies purposefulness in the development of the universe. This view implies that human beings are purposeless, born through the necessity of law. If this were the case, humans become accidental beings, without purpose. For such humans, there is no place for values or morality. A world without values or morality can not but become a world where the strong prey upon the weak and only the strong can survive.

Communist Perspective on Motion

Communists comprehend matter as “matter in motion.” Friedrich Engels (1820-95) said, “motion is the mode of existence of matter. Never anywhere has there been matter without motion, nor can there be…. Matter without motion is just as inconceivable as motion without matter.”12 For what purpose do Communists assert that motion is the mode of existence of matter? Their purpose is to deny the existence of God. Newton considered the universe as essentially an enormous machine and recognized God as the Being who had made the machine and had caused it to start moving. From that perspective, if we think of matter and motion as separate realities, then we must concede that motion must have derived from something other than matter itself-ultimately, by some being like God. Thus, in order to prevent such a metaphysical interpretation of motion, Communists defined motion as the mode of existence originally inherent in matter.

From the Unification Thought viewpoint, things exist and move through give and receive action between subject and object. Accordingly, motion is the mode of existence of all things. However, motion is not the mode of existence of an individual being itself, but rather it is a phenome-non that appears when subject and object engage in give and receive action. Give and receive action between subject and object is an action intended for the realization of the purpose of creation. Ultimately, then, motion exists for the realization of the purpose of creation. For example, the earth engages in give and receive actions internally and externally in order to realize its purpose of creation-that is, to provide the environ-ment for human beings to live in-and therefore engages in rotation and revolution.

Communists assert that motion is the mode of existence of matter, but they say nothing at all about the reason why matter has such a mode of existence or about the kinds of motion it performs. Communists merely want to assert that things move through the struggle of opposites.

D. Position of Existence

Every individual being has its own place for existence. The place that a being possesses is called its “position of existence” in Unification Thought. When two individuals engage in a subject and object (namely, give and receive) relationship, there is a difference between the position of the subject and the position of the object.

Position of Existence Seen from the Viewpoint of a Connected Being

A being exists as an individual truth being and, at the same time, as a connected being. As a connected being, a being is simultaneously both in the position of object and in the position of subject. As a result, numerous beings become connected upwards and downwards, in front and back, and to the right and left, forming a system of positions, namely an orderly system. Such a system of positions of subject and object is simply a reflection of the positions of subject and object in the Original Image, which are projected into the three dimensional spatial world.

There are numerous stars in the universe which, as connected beings, engage in give and receive actions from their different respective positions, all forming an orderly system. Such order in the universe comes about through the accumulation of the two-stage structures of existence, all of which are modeled after the two-stage structure of the Original Image. As connected beings, which are beings with dual purposes, all the beings in the universe are related to each other. Hence, the universe is a giant organic body. Human beings exist in the highest position of the organic orderly system, and God exists above human beings.

Vertical Order and Horizontal Order

The order of the universe is of two kinds, namely, vertical and horizontal. An example of the vertical order of the universe is as follows. The moon (a satellite) and the earth (a planet) engage in give and receive action, with the earth as the subject and the moon as the object. The earth, in turn, engages in give and receive action with the sun (a star), forming a part of the solar system. Here the earth is the object and the sun is the subject. Next, the sun engages in give and receive action with the galactic center and, together with many other stars, forms the galaxy. Here the sun is the object, and the galactic center is the subject. Furthermore, the galaxy, in unity with many other galaxies, engages in give and receive action with the center of the universe, forming the universe. In this case, the galaxy is the object, and the center of the universe is the subject. This thread of connection-running from satellite to planet, to star, and to galactic center, all the way to the center of the universe-makes up the vertical order of the universe.


We can also consider the horizontal order of the universe. If we look at the nine planets of the solar system, we can see that they form an orderly, horizontal arrangement of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. This planetary system, centering on the sun, is an example of horizontal order in the universe. Also, this kind of horizontal order can be seen in other fixed stars which have planets. The vertical order and the horizontal order of the universe are illustrated in fig. 2.7.

Order in the Universe and Order in the Family


A human family, in its original form, should also have had an orderly system like that of the universe. In a family there is vertical order, which consists of grandchildren, children, parents, grandparents, great grand-parents, and so on; and there is horizontal order, which consists of brothers and sisters centered on the parents. The vertical order and the horizontal order of a family are illustrated in fig. 2.8.

From the perspective of composition the human being is a microcosm, or a miniature of the universe. Considered from the aspect of order, the family is a miniature of the universe, and the universe is an expanded image of the family. It is well known that in a galaxy there are innumerable planetary systems similar to the solar system, and that in the universe there are innumerable galaxies. Therefore, we can assert that the universe is an ordered assemblage of innumerable families of heavenly bodies.

In the universe, perfect order is maintained through harmonious give and receive action. In the solar system, the nine planets are engaged in give and receive action with the sun and, centering on the sun, they maintain a collective disc shape while moving along their specific individual orbits around the sun. In the Milky Way galaxy, approximately 200 billion stars are engaged in give and receive action with the galactic center, and they maintain, as a whole, the shape of a convex lens while remaining in their respective established orbits. In the universe, upwards of 200 billion galaxies are engaged in give and receive action with the center of the universe, and they maintain the harmony in the universe as a whole while yet remaining in their respective established orbits.

This order of the universe is reflected in the family. In the universe, order and peace are maintained through harmonious give and receive action (the Way of Heaven) among all heavenly bodies. Similarly, in a family order and peace are to be maintained according to the law of harmonious give and receive action, that is, the principle of love, among the family members. The principle of love is ethics, the norm of the family, which corresponds to the Way of Heaven. Due to the human fall, however, the family has lost its original state of existence. Thus, family ethics has collapsed, and family members have become disunited. Society, which is an extension of the family, has also become extremely disorderly.

E. Law of the Universe

The law that governs the universe is called the Way of Heaven. This law refers to the harmonious give and receive action between subject and object. This universal law of give and receive action has the following seven characteristics, or seven principles:

(1) Correlativity: Every being not only has correlative elements of subject and object within itself, but also externally forms correlative relationships of subject and object with other beings. Without such correlativity, no being can exist or develop.

(2) Purposefulness and Centrality: The correlative elements of subject and object always possess a common purpose and perform give and receive action centering on that purpose.

(3) Order and Position: Every being has its own existing position whereby it maintains a certain order.

(4) Harmony: The give and receive action between subject and object is spherical and harmonious, without any opposition or struggle in the relationship, for God’s love is always at work there.

(5) Individuality and Connectedness: Every being is an individual truth being and, at the same time, exists as a connected being. Each being, while maintaining its own inherent characteristics (individuality), has certain relationships with other beings and interacts with them.

(6) An Identity-Maintaining Nature and a Developmental Nature: Every being maintains its own unchangeable essence (identity-maintaining nature) throughout its life, and, at the same time, has aspects that change and develop (developmental nature) as it grows and develops.

(7) Circular Motion: In the give and receive action between subject and object, the object revolves around the subject and performs circular motion in time and space.

It can be said that the law of the universe is the work of Logos. Logos is law, but at the same time it contains reason, based on Heart. Thus, behind Logos there is love at work. In other words, when God created the universe through Logos, the motivation of its creation was Heart and love. Therefore, Rev. Sun Myung Moon has stated that in the universe there is not only physical force, but also the power of love.

Applied to the human individual, the law of the universe manifests itself as morality, and applied to the family, it manifests itself as ethics. Hence, the law of the universe, and moral and ethical laws are in a relationship of correspondence. A society is the extension of a family. Accordingly, social ethics is to be established, in correspondence to the Way of Heaven.

When an individual being violates the law of the universe, that being becomes unable to maintain its own existence. Indeed, if one of the planets of the solar system were to deviate from its orbit, not only would that planet be unable to maintain its own existence, but great calamities in the solar system would also ensue. Likewise in a family and in a society, if people violate ethical laws, that can only give rise to destruction and disorder. Accordingly, in order to help a confused society, the most urgent task, which should be pursued before anything else, is to re-establish ethical laws.

Yet, moral and ethical theories based on traditional religions and thought systems do not have sufficiently developed logical explanations, and because of that they are not persuasive for present-day analytical and rational people. This is why these laws are all but neglected today. In contrast, in Unification Thought we provide a sound logical basis, so that moral and ethical laws may be strengthened with the understanding that they (moral and ethical laws) correspond to the law of the universe.

Thus, Unification Thought is able to provide a firm foundation for the practice of morality and ethics. This point will be explained in further detail in the chapters on “Axiology” and “Ethics.”

My final point in this chapter will be an analysis, from the viewpoint of Unification Thought, of the views of Communism concerning the law of the universe. Communism is based on a dialectical view of the universe; therefore, it asserts that phenomena of motion, change, and development in the universe take place through the contradiction, or the struggle of opposites, inherent in all things. Communism also claims that in order for human society to develop, struggle (i.e., class struggle) is necessary. On this matter, Lenin wrote, “The unity (coincidence, identity, equal action) of opposites is conditional, temporary, transitory, relative. The struggle of mutually exclusive opposites is absolute, just as development and motion are absolute.”13 Lenin went so far as to definitively affirm that “Development is the ‘struggle’ of opposites.” 14

Communism asserts that things develop through the struggle of opposites but, in reality, we can not find such phenomena anywhere in the universe. It is only through harmony that the universe has been developing. If one observes the universe, one may find certain phenomena, such as the explosion of a star, which appear destructive. However, this is not a destructive phenomenon of the universe as a whole, but only a limited destructive phenomenon. These phenomena are not different from what happens to a living being. When the cells of a living being become old, they are replaced by new ones. Likewise, when stars become old, they disappear, and new ones are born.

At this point, someone might argue that in the animal kingdom, where the stronger prey upon the weaker, the theory of the struggle of opposites holds true. For example, snakes eat frogs, and cats eat mice. Communism attempts to justify the theory of struggle in human society on the basis of such observations of nature as these. It should be noted, however, that the struggles between snakes and frogs, or between cats and mice, are struggles between animals of different species.

In taxonomy, living beings are divided into the categories of kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. In the case of cats and mice, cats are in the order Carnivora, and mice are in the order Rodentia. Cats and mice are different from each other on the level of order. In the case of snakes and frogs, snakes are in the class Reptilia, and frogs are in the class Amphibia. Snakes and frogs are different from each other on the class level. In other words, when one animal preys upon another, the preying animal is usually different from its prey at least on the level of species. In nature, we do not see animals belonging to the same species fighting to the death. A cat does eat mice, but it does not eat other cats. A snake does eat frogs, but it does not eat other snakes of the same species.

In marked contrast, human beings, who all belong to the same species (namely, Homo sapiens), plunder from one another and kill one another. Therefore, the fact that human beings struggle with one another can not be justified on the basis of the natural phenomenon that the stronger prey upon the weaker.

As an illustration, consider the case of struggle among lions. When a new lion is placed into a pride of lions, a struggle takes place between the new lion and the leader of the pride. This kind of struggle is intended to determine which lion should be the leader-in other words, it is intended to establish order. Once a new leader is determined, the weaker lion surrenders to the stronger one and the fight is over. Such a fight is essentially different from the struggles in which human beings kill each other. Thus, we can not find any phenomenon which justifies struggles in human society.

It is only because humankind fell away from God, and became self-centered, that human beings came to plunder from, and kill, one another. Accordingly, if humankind returns to its original state, such struggles will no longer be seen in human society. Furthermore, if humankind had not fallen, people would have become the rulers of all things, and would have exercised dominion over nature through love.15

Thus, we come to the conclusion that, in the development of the natural world the law of contradiction, or the law of the struggle of opposites, is never at work, but rather there is the law of the harmonious give and receive action between correlatives (subject and object).


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