A Summary of Unification Thought

Preface

Theory of the Original Image
I. The Divine Image
II. The Divine Character
III. The Structure of the Original Image
IV. Traditional Ontology and Unification Thought

Ontology
I. The Universal Image of the Individual Truth Body
II Subject and Object
III. The Individual Image of the Individual Truth Body
IV. The Connected Body
V. The Connected Body
VI. The Position of Existence
VII. The Law of the Universe

Theory of the Original Human Nature
I. A Being With Divine Image
II. A Being with Divine Character
III. A Being with Position
IV. Conclusion
V. A Unification Thought Appraisal of the Existentialist Analysis of Human Existence

Axiology: A Theory of Value
I. The Basis for Values and Various Kinds of Values
II. Determination of Actual Value and the Unification of Views of Value
III. Weaknesses In Traditional Views of Values
IV. Establishing a New View of Value
V. Historical Changes In the Systems of Value

Theory of Education
I. The Divine Principle Foundation for a Theory of Education
II. The Three Forms of Education
III. The Image of the Ideal Educated Person
IV. Traditional Theories of Education
V. An Appraisal of Traditional Theories of Education from the Standpoint of Unification Thought

Ethics
I. The Divine Principle Foundation for Ethics
II. Ethics and Morality
III. Order and Equality
IV. Appraisal of Traditional Theories of Ethics from the Viewpoint of the Unification Theory of Ethics

Theory of Art
I. The Divine Principle Foundation for the New Theory of Art
II. Art and Beauty
III. The Dual Purpose of Artistic Activity: Creation and Appreciation
IV. Requisites for Creation
V. Requisites for Appreciation
VI. Unity In Art
VII. Art and Ethics
VIII. Types of Beauty
IX. A Critique of Socialist Realism

Theory of History
I. The Basic Positions of the Unification View of History
II. The Laws of Creation
III. The Laws of Restoration
IV. Changes In History
V. Traditional Views of History
VI. A Comparative Analysis of Histories

Epistemology
I. Traditional Epistemologies
II. Unification Epistemology (Part 1)
II. Unification Epistemology (Part 2)
III. Kant's and Marx's Epistemologies from the Perspective of Unification Thought

Logic
I. Traditional Systems of Logic
II. Unification Logic
III. An Appraisal of Traditional Systems of Logic from the Perspective of Unification Thought

Methodology
I. Historical Review
II. Unification Methodology - The Give-and-Receive Method
III. An Appraisal of Conventional Methodologies from the Perspective of Unification Thought

Notes

References

Notes

1. Theory of the Original Image

1. The word 'body', as used in this and similar expressions of Unification Thought, refers not only to visible entities, but also to invisible entities. The concept of 'body' is peculiar to Unification Thought. As used in such expressions as "united body," "harmonized body," "new body," and "multiplied body," the word 'body' refers to an entity that has come into being as a result of a give-and-receive action. Accordingly, the word 'body' refers both to visible and to invisible entities.

2. In Divine Principle, the terms Sungsang and Hyungsang are translated as "internal character" and "external form," respectively (Divine Principle, second ed., New York: The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, 1973, p. 22).

3. In Divine Principle, this statement was translated as "the external form may also be called a second internal character" ( Ibid., p. 22).

4. "Experience" here refers not only to what we experience with the five physical senses, but also to what we experience in the internal relationship between mind and body.

5. Paul A. Dirac, et a]., Scientific American Resource Library: Readings in the Physical Science (in Japanese), Tokyo: Kodanslia, 1972, p. 79.

6. The Great Ultimate (Tai-chi) of the I Ching was interpreted as a monistic ch'i in the early Tang dynasty.

7. Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), the founder of quantum physics, dealt, from around 1951, with the unified theory of elementary particles and advocated the idea of "prime-matter.,, This theory asserts that the elementary particles that have been observed, of which there are approximately 300, have come into being from a prime-matter, which is the ultimate matter, following a cosmic equation expressed in a certain mathematical form. Heisenberg said also that "prime-matter" is the same as . prime-energy," and that all the various kinds of elementary particles (therefore, all matter) of the universe consists of prime-energy. The prime-matter, or prime-energy, advocated by Heisenberg can be regarded as pointing to pre-matter, or pre-energy, as advocated by Unification Thought. Today it is known that all matter consists of quarks and leptons. Recently the "sub-quark" model has been advocated. This model states that quarks and leptons are made of even more basic particles, and active research is being conducted in that area. Specifically, the sub-quark model states that all matter is made of sub-quarks, and that there are three kinds of sub-quarks, which can be regarded as different states of a single sub-quark. If this theory is correct, it follows that all matter is made of a single, basic substance. This can be seen as a contemporary version of Heisenberg's monistic unified model. For further reference, see Hidezumi Terasawa's Sub-quark Physics and Original Geomeby (Tokyo, Kyoritsu-shuppan-sha, 1982), pp. 17-21.

8. In previous Unification Thought writings, the expression "give-and-take action" had been used as the translation for susujag-ong; however, the expression "give-and-receive action" is a more appropriate translation, and will be used from now on.

9. Let me now elaborate on the difference between the Inner Hyungsang and the Original Hyungsang. All the elements contained within the Inner Hyungsang (ideas, concepts, original laws, mathematical principles, etc.) have a kind of form, or image. These forms, or images, are invisible, but when they are manifested as all things, they necessarily appear wearing an "external garment," so to speak. It is the Original Hyungsang that becomes the "external garment." Therefore, the relationship between the Inner Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang is that of content and external garment.*

10. The English edition translates Sungsang as "essential character" and Hyungsang as "essential form" (Divine Principle, p. 25).

11. The famous British theoretical physicist David Bohm explored the realm of consciousness and formulated his unique cosmology. He said, "If the immanence is pursued more and more deeply in matter, I believe we may eventually reach the stream which we also experience as mind, so that mind and matter fuse" (Ken Wilber, ed., The Holographic Paradigm and Other Paradoxes, Boston: Shambhala, 1985, p. 193). We can see that Bohm, while exploring the realm of consciousness from the perspective of a natural scientist, has reached the same conclusion as that of the Theory of Unity advocated by Unification Thought.

12. Nicolas de Malebranche (1638-1715) applied Geulincx's occasionalistic idea to epistemological questions. If spirit and matter are kinds of substances that are totally different from each other, how can spirit recognize matter? Malebranche explained that in God there are eternal ideas as the prototypes of things and that in recognizing things, we do not recognize things directly, but rather we recognize the ideas within God. On this point lie said, "We see all things in God." The consequence of this view is that we are relating ourselves only to God, and the significance of the existence of matter diminishes. See Takeo Iwasaki's History of Western Philosophy (in Japanese) (Tokyo, Yuhikaku, 1975), p. 147.

13. The English edition translates "Yang" as "masculinity" and "Yin" as "femininity" (Divine Principle, p. 25).

14. Divine Principle, p. 24.

15. The faculties of the Inner Sungsang refer to the individual faculties, namely, the intellectual faculty, the emotional faculty, and the volitional faculty. In contrast, the functions of the Divine Character refer to the synthetic, combined functions of Inner Sungsang, Inner Hyungsang, and Original Hyungsang as a whole. Heart is the core and essence of the Original Image (Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang). Therefore, any discussion of Heart must take as its premise the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang. Logos can come into being only through the mutual relationship of Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang. In the manifestation of Creativity, however, not only the Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang are involved, but also the Original Hyungsang.

16. Feuerbach said in The Essence of Christianity: "It is impossible to love, will, or think without perceiving these activities to be perfections . . . . This complacency becomes vanity only when a man piques himself on his form as being his individual form, not when he admires it as a specimen of human beauty in general" (Tr. George Eliot, New York, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1957, p. 6).

17. Feuerbach said, "The divine being is the human nature purified, freed from the limits of the individual man, made objective-i.e., contemplated and revered as another, a distinct being" (Ibid., p. 14).

18. The Unification Principle says, "love is an emotional force given by the subject to the object; beauty is an emotional force returned to the subject by the object" (Divine Principle p. 48). Love and beauty, however, are like the two sides of a coin. When seen from the position of the giver, the emotional force is love; but the same emotional force, when seen from the position of the receiver, is beauty. Therefore, when subject and object are both human, it is not the case that only the emotional force given by the subject to the object is love; for the emotional force given by the object to the subject is love as well.

19. In previous Unification Thought writings, the expression .quadruple base" had been used; from now on, however, the expression "four-position base" will be used.

20. Further detail about the formation of the Logos through inner give-and-receive action will be added here. The Inner Sungsang refers to the faculties of intellect, emotion, and will. When forming the Logos, these faculties work in unison. (Incidentally, in the case of human beings, these faculties, working in unison, are called "spiritual apperception.") The Inner Hyungsang contains ideas, concepts, laws (or principles), mathematical principles, and so forth. These elements are all united centering on the idea; this means that concepts, laws, mathematical principles, are all united within the idea.

The formation of Logos can also be explained in terms of a "beginning stage" and an "advanced stage." In the beginning stage, various ideas are explored through the inner give-and-receive action. This process should result in the formation of a .mental mold," which is the idea to be used as the mold of the being to be created. This mental mold still is a static image or a static blueprint not yet a perfected Logos. It can be called an "initial conception," or a "pre-Logos."

Fig N-a

Next, in the advanced stage of inner give-and-receive action, the faculties of intellect, emotion, and will, centering on Heart, are injected into the Inner Hyungsang. In this case, the Inner Hyungsang is the mental mold , or initial conception, which was formed through the beginning stage of inner give-and-receive action. Through the advanced stage of give-and-receive action, a Logos is formed as a living conception, or a perfected conception.

Following the two stages of inner give-and-receive actions mentioned above, outer give-and-receive action begins to take place between the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang. At this stage, the Sungsang is the united being of intellect, emotion, and will, and it contains the Logos; the Hyungsang is pre-energy. Through the give-and-receive action between the Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang, pre-energy penetrates into the mold of the perfected conception (i.e., Logos), and through this process, created beings are produced.

21. Divine Principle, p. 53.

22. Hirschberger states, "People like to call this pan-logism, and in relation to this pan-logism, they have regarded Hegel as the advocate of the mystical, pantheistic theory that all is one. Philosophers of a scholasticist inclination have generally uniformly regarded Hegel as a philosopher of a pantheistic identity" (Hirschberger, Geschichle der Philosophie, Freiburg, Verlag Herder, 1984, 11., p. 419).

Fig N-b

2. Ontology

1. Hiroshi Motoyama, Yoga and Parapsychology (Tokyo: Shunkyoshinri shuppan, 1972), p. 109.

2. The phenomenon of the direct influence of the will over matter is called "psychokinesis." Through psychokinesis the will can move a distant object, can bend, extend, or harden a metal, and can even make a random-number generator lose its randomness. See M. Cazenave, ed., Srienre ei Conscience, trans. A. flail and E. Callander (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1984), p. 49.

3. In 1966 Clive Backster, an American lie-detector technician, examined the reactions of a plant by attaching the electrodes of a lie-detector to its leaves. To his surprise, Backster found that the plant was able to read his mind. For instance, when he pictured burning the leaves, the instant lie pictured the flame in his mind, even before lie moved to get matches, the plant reacted strongly. Subsequently lie conducted various experiments and concluded that plants seem to have consciousness and sense. This discovery by Backster is called "the Backster Effect." See Peter Tompkins & Christopher Bird, The Secret Life of Plants (New York: Harper and Row, Publishers), 1973, pp. 3-5.

Attempts to reproduce the kinds of communication between human beings and plants that Backster reported have also been made in the Soviet Union. V. N. Pushkin and other researchers have confirmed that plants react to the emotions of a person in a hypnotic state. See A. P. Dubrov & V. N. Pushkin, Parapsychology and Contemporary Natural Science, (Moscow, 1983).

4. On this matter, David Bohm of London University said, "There may be a sort of living energy in all matter that manifests in us in certain ways which it doesn't do in the rock. If that were the case, if a sort of intelligence were generalized throughout nature, then the speculative proposal that inanimate matter might respond to our thought is not so illogical" (Ken Wilber, The Holographic Paradigm and Other Paradoxes, p. 211).

Also, Jean E. Charon, a theoretical physicist at Paris University, has said that electrons and photons themselves are microcosms, and that they are equipped with mechanisms of memory and thinking. See Mitsuo Ishikawa, The World View of New Science. (Tokyo: Tama-shuppan, 1985), pp. 178-79.

5. Traditionally, it had been considered that single-cell organisms (bacteria) were sexless; but in 1947, J. Lederberg and E. L. Tatum demon stated that even bacteria engage in sexual reproduction.

6. This explanation is based on the scientists' "Big Bang" theory, supposing that it is true. The mention of this theory does not necessarily imply that God actually created the universe by means of the Big Bang.

7. Fredrick Engels, Anti-Duhring (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969), 1). 33.

8. In Divine Principle it says, "Before creating man, God made all things in the image and likeness of man's character and form" (p. 44).

9. Joseph Stalin, Dialectical and Historical Materialism (New York: International Publishers, 1940) p. 7.

10. David Bohm speaks of the influence of a seed upon its environment as follows:

According to the implicate order, the seed is continually providing inanimate matter in the environment with new information that leads it to produce the living plant or animal. Who is to say then that life is not immanent, even before the seed was planted? (Ken Wilber, The Holographic Paradigm and Other Paradoxes, [Boston: Shambliala, 1985], p. 193)

11. Engels, Anti-Duhring, pp. 75-76.

12. V. I. Lenin, "On the Question of Dialectics," Collected Works of Lenin, Vol. 38 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976), p. 358.

13. Ibid.

3. Theory of the Original Human Nature

1. Confucius, The Analects, tr. by D.C. Lau Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1979), p. 112

2. The Reverend Sun Myung Moon has stated this idea as follows: "For a man, his wife represents mother, elder sister, younger sister, and, indeed, all women of the world. To love a wife who has such a significance means to love all races of humanity, all women, and one's mother, elder sister, and younger sister in the home. Accordingly, the family is the "basis training" center that educates people in human love. Therefore, to be trusted and to live a happy life in a family means to live a happy life as the center of the entire universe and to be situated at the center of happy love. Her husband represents father, elder brothers, younger brothers, and all men on earth. This is our ideal of the family." Sun Myung Moon, God's Will and The World, [New York: The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, 1985], p. 446.

3. The English word that best captures the meaning of Shimjung is "Heart," but the term "Heart" lacks certain essential aspects of the Korean term. Shimjung is the central aspect of the Divine as well as the human personality. Readers should keep in mind the definition of Shimjung when using the term "Heart."

4. Confucius, The Analects, p.63.

5. Sun Myung Moon, "Founders Address (Fourteenth ICUS)," in Absolute Values and the New Cultural Revolution (New York: The International Cultural Foundation, 1986), p.16

6. Frederick Engels, "Socialism: Utopian and Scientific," in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Selected Works, vol. 3 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1970), p. 149.

7. In his Two Treatises of Government, Locke states,

"Man being born, as has been proved, with the Title to perfect Freedom and an uncontrolled enjoyment of all the Rights and Privileges of the Law of Nature, equally with any other Man, or Number of Men in the World, hath by Nature a power, not only to preserve his Property, that is, his Life, Liberty and Estate, against the Injuries and Attempts of other Men; but to judge of, and to punish the breaches of that Law in others. ... even with Death itself." John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, edited by Peter Laslett [New York: Cambridge University Press, 19881, pp. 323-324.

8. A basic teaching of Christianity was the equality of all people before God. The Christian Church, however, though preaching the spiritual equality of all people, accepted nevertheless the existence of inequality in actual society. That concept was rejected by Calvinism, which stressed the equality of all in actual life. The Calvinist view was developed into a political thought by the promoters of the Puritan Revolution in England in the Seventeenth Century. In particular John Lilburn (1614-1657), who was the theoretical leader and most active propagandist of the movement of the "levelers," insisted on the equality of rights based on the "creation of equal human beings by God," and tried to promote a fundamental democratic revolution.

John Locke (1632-1704) further established the foundation for modern democracy by consummating the theoretical aspects of the Puritan Revolution. In Locke as well, the idea of equality before God was perceived. In Two Treatises of Government, he said, "The State of Nature has a Law of Nature to govern it, which obliges everyone: And Reason, which is that Law, teaches all Mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his Life, Health, Liberty, or Possessions. For Men being all the Workmanship of one Omnipotent, and infinitely wise Maker . . . ."(p. 271)

9. Soren Kierkegaard, The Sickness Unto Death (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), p. 13.

10. Soren Kierkegaard, The ]'resent Age (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1962), p. 63.

11. Friedrich Nietzsche, 'Thus Spake Zarathustra," in Walter Kaufmann, editor and translator, Nietzsche (New York: Penguin Books, 1982), p. 226.

12. F. Nietzsche, "The Antichrist," in W. Kaufmann, Nietzsche, p. 570.

13. F. Nietzsche, "Thus Spake Zarathustra," in W. Kaufmann, Nietzsche, p. 329.

14. Nietzsche asserted in "The Antichrist," that Paul had changed "evangel" into "dysangel," and Jesus' teachings into a kind of teaching for after death. Nietzsche said, "I tell the genuine history of Christianity. The very word "Christianity" is a misunderstanding: in truth, there was only one Christian, and he died on the cross. The "evangel" died on the cross. What has been called "evangel" from that moment was actually the opposite of that, which he had lived: "ill tidings," a dysangel." (p. 612)

Paul simply transported the center of gravity of that whole existence after this existence-in the lie of the "resurrected" Jesus. (p. 617)

15. Karl Jaspers, Philosophy, vol. 1, tr. by E. B. Ashton (Chicago: The

University of Chicago Press, 1969), p. 56.

16. Karl Jaspers, Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 178.

17. Karl Jaspers, Mat is Philosophy? (in Japanese) (Tokyo: Hakusuisha, 1978), p. 22. Translated from Was ist Philosophie? Ed. by Hans Sauer (Munich: R. Piper & Co. Verlag, 1976).

18. Ibid., p.26.

19. Ibid., p. 25.

20. Heidegger spoke of "they" (Das Man) as follows:

The "who" is not this one, not that one, not oneself [man selbst], not some people [einige], and not the sum of them all. The "who" is the neuter, the "thty " [Das Man].

- Martin Heidegger, translated by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson, Being and Time Southampton: Basil Blackwell, 1962, p. 164.

21. Ibid. p. 320.

22. Jean-Paul Sartre, "Existentialism is a Humanism," in The Fabric of Existentialism, ed. by R. Gill & E. Sherman (New York: Meredith Corporation, 1973) , p. 521.

23. Ibid. p. 522.

24. Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness (New York: Washington Square Press, 1956), p. 707.

25. Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism is a Humanism, p. 523-24.

26. Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness, p. 373.

27. Ibid., p. 555.

4. Axiology: A Theory of Value

1. The term "autonomy of the Principle" refers to the power whereby each being in creation grows by itself to full maturity (see Divine Principle, p. 55).

2. Trueness, or verity, is different from truth. It is the quality of embodying truth, or being true.

3. In Unification Thought, love indeed is a value, but love is not just another different kind of value, as trueness, goodness, and beauty are different values. Love is the basis of trueness, goodness, and beauty; also, love is the common element among these three values. This means that the stronger the degree of love, both on the part of the giver and on the part of the receiver, the stronger will be their experience of values (trueness, goodness, and beauty).

4. Material value includes sex as well as food, clothing, and shelter. Here, sex means the object of sexual life, i.e., the sexual organ. Sex, therefore, is included in the concept of material values. Sex, as well as food, clothing, and shelter, is a value sought after by the physical mind. At the same time, sex corresponds to love (sexual love), which is a value sought after by the spirit mind.

5. Sun Myung Moon, New Hope-Twelve Talks by Sun Myung Moon, ed. by Rebecca Salonen (New York: HSA-UWC, 1973), p. 55.

6. The Three realms refer to the three stages of the world where every living being lives, dies, and changes, namely, the realm of desire, the realm of matter, and the realm of non-matter. The realm of desire is the lowest one; those who inhabit it are consumed by desires of carnal pleasure, food, and sleep. The realm of matter is located above the realm of desire and refers to the realm consisting of exquisite matter for those who have rid themselves from desire. The realm of non-matter refers to the highest stage and is a highly spiritual realm, transcending matter.

7. The term "truth," as used in the expression "absolute truth," means the Word, or Logos. It is different from "truth" as used in traditional axiologies, that is, in the context of the values of "truth, goodness, and beauty." To express the latter meaning of "truth," Unification Axiology uses the term "trueness."

8. With regard to the universal standard, the Reverend Moon said, We must recognize that there is a universal principle involved, regardless of what race you are. You can see that the universe has certain fundamental laws, and anyone who violates them will be judged accordingly, regardless of his race or stature. What is the spirit of that constitution of the universe? It aims to preserve or uphold the men and women who try to live for others. It would also try to eliminate people who take advantage of others and seek to benefit only themselves. This is why we can say that good people are those who exist for the sake of others, and good deeds are those actions which benefit others. God's Will and the World, New York: HSA-UWC, 1985, p. 497

9. The Reverend Moon's assertion at the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences is that absolute values should be pursued on the basis of absolute love.

10. Liberation Theology is a new theology that emerged in the less developed world. It departs from the traditional Christian view of salvation, and insists on active participation in resolving actual problems. The most important problem among actual problems is the dehumanization of people, and Liberation Theology asserts that the cause of dehumanization lies in the structural contradictions and social evils of capitalist society. Accordingly, it asserts, in order to liberate human nature, capitalist society must be overthrown; thus, it affiliates itself with Communism.

11. After World War II, the less developed world obtained independence politically; economically, however, it still depends on the developed world and cannot get out of the state of underdevelopment. Dependency Theory grasps this situation as the relationship between central and peripheral nations, and interprets it as a projection, on .in international scale, of the class confrontation of capitalist society. That is to say, just as the working class is exploited by the capitalist class, so the less developed countries are exploited by the developed countries-exploitation carried out through multinational enterprises-it asserts. Therefore, in order for the less developed world to get out of its underdeveloped state, it must liberate itself from the developed countries and become socialist-and the way to do that is to expel multinational corporations, abolish all forms of dependency relations, and overthrow comprador capital and the authoritarian class.

12. jen: True virtue, benevolence, mutual respect, reciprocal love, good-will, human-heartedness.

13. The Great Learning says:

Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their States were rightly governed. Their States being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy. Confucius, Confucian Analects, The Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean, tr. By James Legge, New York: Dover Publications, 1971, pp. 358-59.

The Great Learning was part of the Book of Rites. Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi) characterized the Analects, Mencius, The Doctrine of the Mean, and The Great Learning as The Four Chinese Classics. It is said to be the work of one of Confucius' disciples.

14. Confucius said, "Heaven produced the virtue that is in me" (Ibid., p. 202), which means that virtues are given by Heaven. Tung Chung-shu said that Heaven is jen (benevolence).

15. It is said that Talh-agata is the "one who comes from TathaFa." Also, one of the Buddhist sutras says that Tath-agata has the great merciful heart that is found in every living being. Therefore, TathaFa can be regarded as the root of mercy, which is the fundamental virtue of Buddhism.

16. The Qur'an says:

Say ye: "We believe In God, and the revelation Given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, And the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given To (all) Prophets from their Lord: We make no difference Between one and :mother of them: And we bow to God (in Islam). The Holy Quran, tr. by A. Yusuf Ali (Brentwood, MD: Amana Corp, 1983), Sura 11, verse 136, p. 5.5.

17. Sutra I of the Qur'an, which is the Opening Chapter, contains the Seven Verses, which are called "the essence of the Qur'an," as follows:

In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to God, The Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds; Most Gracious, Most Merciful; Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee do we worship, And Thine aid we seek. Show us the straight way. The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, Those whose (portion) Is not wrath, And who go not astray. Ibid, Sura 1, pp. 14-15.

18. Pascal wrote in Pensies as follows: "Man without faith can know neither true good nor justice. All men seek happiness. There are no exceptions. ...What else does this craving, and this helplessness, proclaim but that there was once in man a true happiness, of which all that now remains is empty print and trace? ... None can help [him], since this infinite abyss can be filled only with an infinite and immutable object; in other words, God himself."(Pascal-Pensies, tr. by A. J. Krailsheimer [New York: Penguin Books, 19661 pp. 74-75. He also wrote, "It is the heart which perceives God and not the reason. That is what faith is: God perceived by the heart, not by the reason." (Ibid., p. 154).

19. B. P. Tugarinov, "The Issues of Values in Philosophy," in Dictionary of Philosophy (in Japanese), ed. by Koichi Mori (Tokyo: AokiShoten, 1974), p. 61 (originally published by the Department of Philosophy of Leningrad University).

5. Theory of Education

1. The time from Adam to Noah, as described in the Bible, is symbolic time. The chronological time was much longer than 1600 years. Symbolic time is meant to teach us how God works in human history rather than describe chronological events. The time from Noah to Abraham is also symbolic. But beginning from Abraham, the Bible describes chronological time.

2. Comenius gave the following subtitle to his book The Great Didactic:

The whole Art of Teaching all Things to all Men or A certain Inducement to found such Schools in all the Parishes, Towns, and Villages of every Christian Kingdom, that the entire Youth of both Sexes, none being excepted, shall Quickly, Pleasantly, and Thoroughly Become learned in the Sciences, pure in Morals, trained to Piety, and in this manner instructed in all things necessary for the present and for the future life. John Amos Comenius, The Great Didactic, tr. by M. W. Keatinge (New York: Russell and Russell, 1967), p. 1.

3. J. J. Rousseau, tr. Barbara Foxley, Emile (London: L. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1974), p. 5.

4. Immanuel Kant, Education, tr. Annette Churton (The University of Michigan Press, 1960), p. 1.

5. Ibid., p. 6.

6. On intellectual education (mental education) and moral-religious education (heart echication), Pestalozzi wrote the following: "Originally, intellectual education is not at all suitable for producing innocence and child-like feelings within ourselves, which produce all the methods that enhance ourselves to higher, divine feelings. As a thorn does not bear figs and a thistle does not bear grapes, so mere spiritual education, separate from heart education, does not bear the fruit of love. Since spiritual education is a victim of the selfishness and weakness that arise as a result of this separation, it has the cause of degradation in itself, and exhausts itself by its own power, just as a flame burns out as soon as it is taken out of the fuel container. U. 11. Pestalozzi, Spirit and Heart in the Method [in Japanese], [Meiji-Tosho: Tokyo, 19801, p. 122).

In Swans' Song (1826), which lie wrote just before his death, lie explained spiritual power, heart power, and technical power, and clarified that love is the force that unites them.

7. F. Froebel, The Education of Man (Clifton: Augustus M. Kelley, Publishers, 1974), p. 10.

8. John Dewey, Democracy and Education, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (New York: Macmillan Company, 1916), p. 62.

9. Ibid., p. 11.

10. Ibid., p. 89.

11. K. Marx, "The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850," in K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Works of Marx and Engels (hereafter called SWME, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969), vol. 1, p. 278.

12. K. Marx, Capital (New York: International Publishers, 1967), 1:477.

13. V. I. Lenin, Collected Works of Lenin (Hereafter called CWL) (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1965), 28:86.

14. CWL, 28:408.

15. CWL 29:132.

16. CWL 31:368.

17. Yoshimatsu Shibata and Satoru Kawanobe, eds., Material on Soviet Pedagogy (in Japanese) (Tokyo: Shin-dokusho-sha, 1976), p. 708.

18. CWL, 31:50. See also K. Marx, Capital, 1:454.

19. The instruction was given by the Americans for the reconstruction of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, an education mission was sent from the United States in order to offer advice on reforming education in Japan. The "Report of the United States Education Mission to Japan" was the proposal for democratic education for the reconstruction of Japan. That report is quoted here because it contains a good summary of the educational ideals of democracy.

20. Report of the United States Education Mission to Japan-Submitted to the Supreme Commander for the Allied flowers (Tokyo: March 30. 1946), Introduction, p. x.

21. Ibid., pp. 3-4.

6. Ethics

1. At this point, I will explain "vertical love and horizontal love." I will also explain other terms that the Reverend Sun Myung Moon has often used to refer to love, such as "vertical and horizontal axes of love," "formation of a 90-degree angle of love axis," and "shortest shortcut of love."

(a) "Vertical Love and Horizontal Love" and "Vertical and Horizontal Axes of Love"

Since the relationship between God and human being is as that between heaven and earth, or that between parents and children, it can be described as a relationship between above and below-in other words, it is a vertical relationship. On the other hand, since the relationship between husband and wife is that between a man and a woman of the same generation, it is a horizontal relationship. Accordingly, God's love is vertical, and the love between husband and wife is horizontal.

God's love derives from the impulsive emotional force of His Heart; once it starts, it travels on a straight line-much in the same way as light travels in a straight line. This means that God's love does not travel in a roundabout way or in a curved line. This characteristic of love is called "the axis of God's love." So, the form of God's vertical love moving on a straight line is expressed as "the vertical axis of love." Love between husband and wife has a similar characteristic. So, the form of conjugal, horizontal love moving on a straight line is expressed as "the horizontal axis of love."

(b) The Formation of a 90-Degree Angle of Love Axis

The true love between husband and wife is always given and received centering on God's love. This means that, when husband and wife love each other centering on God, God's love descends in the midst of them. In terms of "the axis of love," it can be said that "the horizontal axis of conjugal love is reached by the vertical axis of God's love." When that occurs, the angle between the horizontal axis and the vertical axis becomes 90 degrees. This means that "the vertical axis of God's love and the horizontal axis of conjugal love are united in a 90-degree angle."

When husband and wife love each other centering on God, the powerful love of God is added to their love, strongly amplifying and heating up their conjugal love, and no power can weaken or cool down the power of' that love. That is what is meant by the formation of a 90-degree angle between God's love and conjugal love.

(c) The Shortest Shortcut of Love

The Reverend Sun Myung Moon often compares the horizontal axis of conjugal love to a "chord," which is a geometric term. A chord refers to a straight line connecting two points on the circumference of a circle, and the straight line drawn from the center of the circle to the center of the circumference between the two points crosses at a right angle to this chord. Rev. Moon often expresses the unity between conjugal love and God's love by using the expression that "the line from the center of a circle crosses at a right angle to a chord."

Next, I will explain some expression concerning the distance of love. Rev. Moon often uses the expression "the shortest shortcut of love." Actually, since the realm of love is an invisible realm, there can be no spatial distances in it; but the things in the invisible world are often expressed symbolically, by means of visible things. For example, we compare the broadness of mind and the broadness of grace to "the ocean"; the hardness of resolution to "steel"; and dreams of youth to "blue clouds."

"The shortest shortcut of love" is also a symbolic expression of one of the special features of love. The special features of God's love include "directness," "intuitiveness," "immediacy," "the ability to be experienced directly," and so on. When we experience the Heart of God, we can intensely and directly feel how deep, broad, warm, and infinite the love of God is. Those who have experienced that love cannot but weep bitterly for the suffering of God. In traditional religions, people usually know only a glimpse of God's love, indirectly, through mediators. That kind of love can be compared to sunlight blocked by a thin layer clouds.

In contrast, "the love of the shortest shortcut" can be fully grasped instantaneously, at a glance, just as we can directly experience the sun under a clear blue sky. This kind of love is symbolically expressed as "the shortest shortcut of love" or "the love of the shortest shortcut."

2. The concept of "object" in the term "triple-object purpose" and the concept of "object" in the relationship of subject and object are slightly different. In a subject-object relationship, "object" refers to a being that stands as an object toward a subject; in the triple-object purpose, "object" refers to a being that stands in a position correlative to another being.

3. Kant, "The Critique of Practical Reason," in Kant, trans. T. K. Abbott (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1952), p. 302.

4. Ibid., p. 327.

5.J. Bentham, The Principles of Morals and Legislation (New York: Prometheus, 1988), p. 1.

6. Ibid., 1). 24.

7. G. E. Moore, Principia Ethica (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959), p. 7.

8. Ibid., p. 6.

9. William James, Pragmatism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975), p. 97.

10. John Dewey, Theory on the Moral Life (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1960), p. 141.

7. Theory of Art

1. Divine Principle, p. 42.

2. Ibid., p. 25.

3. Divine Principle states the following: "God is the First Cause of the world of creation, and He exists as the absolute subject, having characteristics of both essential character and essential form" (p. 24). And also, "The universe is the substantial manifestation of the invisible God, occurring through the give-and-receive action between His essential character and form, centered on the purpose of creation" (p. 40).

4. Herbert Read, The Meaning of Art (London: Faber & Faber, 1972), p. 18.

5. Divine Principle, p. 48.

6. Ibid., pp. 48-49.

7. Plato, Early Socratic Dialogues (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1987), p. 256.

8. Kant explained in The Critique of Judgment as follows: "Now this relation in the determination of an object as beautiful is bound tip with the feeling of pleasure, which is declared by the judgment of taste to be valid for everyone. ...Therefore it can be nothing else than the subjective purposiveness in the representation of an object without any purpose (either objective or subjective), and thus it is the mere form of purposiveness in the representation by which an object is given to us, so far as we are conscious of it, which constitutes the satisfaction that we without a concept judge to be universally communicable; and, consequently, this is the determining ground of the judgment of taste." Philosophies of Art and Beauty, edited by A. Hofstadter and R. Kuhns (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1964), pp. 294-95.

9. Divine Principle, pp. 46-47.

10. Philosophies of Art and Beauty, p. 96.

11. Read, The Meaning of Art, p. 35.

12. Beethoven said, "There is nothing finer than to approach the Divine and to shed its rays on the human race" (Roman Rolland, Beethoven, translated by BC Hull [New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1969] p. 101). Roman Rolland said in a lecture commemorating Beethoven, "His [Beethoven's] thought to put his art to the use of others was constantly repeated in his letters.... He determined just two objects in his life. They are his dedication to holy art and a conduct intended to make others happy" (Roman Rolland, Life of Beethoven Japanese edition] [Tokyo: Iwanami-shoten, 1965] p. 159).

13. Generally, in aesthetics the process of creation is divided into the following four stages:

(1) Creative feeling. the state of the fermentation of vague feelings;

(2) Conception: the stage where a plan of a work of art looms up vaguely;

(3) Internal refinement: the stage where a clear plan is developed; (4) External perfection, finishing. the stage where a work of art is concretely produced with specific materials and techniques.

Looking from the viewpoint of Unification Thought, (1), (2), and (3) correspond to the formation of the inner four-position base, and (4), to the formation of the outer four-position base.

14. Millet had in mind the following: "The mission of fine art is one of love, rather than hatred. Also, even when fine art describes the pain of the poor, it should not aim at stimulating jealousy toward the rich class." (Romain Rolland, Millet (Japanese edition] [Tokyo: Iwanami-Bunko, 1959], p. 9). "It was the ultimate objective of Millet's creed and art to express the poetry and beauty of human life in the pain of labor as much as possible" (Ibid., pp. 11-12).

15. Theodore Lipps (1851-1914) calls it "empathy" (Einfiihling) when the subject projects onto the object the feelings inspired by the object, and experiences those feelings as though belonging to the object itself.

16. Tsu Tomu Jima, Aesthetics, (in Japanese) (Tokyo: Sobunslia, 1958), p. 213.

17. Clara Zetkin, Reminiscences of Lenin (in German) (Berlin: Dietz Verlag, 1950), p. 17.

18. CWL, vol. 10, p. 45.

19. Maxim Gorky, "Marshlands and Highlands" in Mother (Japanese edition) (Tokyo: Shin-Nippon Bunko, 1976) vol. 2 p. 355.

20. Maxim Gorky, "On Socialist Realism," in An Introduction to Literature (Japanese edition) (Tokyo: Aoki-Shoten, 1962), p. 136.

21. Ibid., pp. 148-149.

22. Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1970), p. 20.

23. Joseph Stalin, "Concerning Marxism in Linguistics," (Pravda, 1950), in Marxism and Problems of Linguistics (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1972), p. 5.

24. Ibid., p. 7.

25. In Let Us Judge - Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (London: Macmillan, 1972) R. A. Medvedev, who criticized Stalin, depicts how Soviet writers and artists were oppressed in the late 1930s. Medvedev explains the reality of socialist realism by saying that, as it turned out, social realism did not describe the truth of reality, but on the contrary embellished reality in order to embellish Communism. He states that "in the forties, ...the embellishment of reality became the hallmark of many writers; the desirable was often indistinguishable from the real" (p. 531). "Artistic quality was bound to be very low. A vast quantity of gray, uninteresting works appeared in all fields of literature and art" (p. 532).

26. Herbert Read, "Art and Society," in The Philosophy of Art, by Yohan Choe (in Korean). (Seoul: Bomunsa, 1974), p. 169.

27. Ilya Ehrenburg, "The Work of a Writer," in The Philosophy of Art, by Yohan Choe, p. 169.

28. Yolian Choe, The Philosophy of Art, pp. 168-69.

29. Andre Gide, Back from the USSR (London: Martin Secker & Warburg, Ltd., 1937), p. 11.

30. Ibid., p. 45.

31. Ibid., pp. 62-63.

32. Boris Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago, tr. by M. Hayward and M. Harari (New York: Ballantine Books, 1981), p. 259.

33. Ibid., p. 408.

34. Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, p. 217.

8. Theory of History

1. Central history does not mean that God works exclusively with that history, to the exclusion of all others. Rather, central history means that God is working with that history to prepare the people to receive the Messiah.

2. Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History, abridgement of I-VI by D. C. Somerwell (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974), p. 214.

3. Karl Jaspers wrote: "It would seem that this axis of history is to be found in the period around 500 BC, in the spiritual process that occurred between 800 and 200 BC. It is there that we meet with the most deeply cut dividing line in history. Man, as we know him today, came into being. For short, we may style this the "'Axial Period"' (The Origin and Goal (of History, p. 1).

4. Jaspers also wrote: "But it is an historical mystery which progressive research into the facts of the situation renders increasingly great. The Axial Period, with its overwhelming plenitude of spiritual creations, which has determined all human history down to the present day, is accompanied by the enigma of the occurrence, in these three mutually independent regions, of an analogous and inseparably connected process," (ibid., p. 13).

5. In the fourteenth century, John Wycliffe (ca. 1320-1384) of Great Britain translated the Bible into English, and asserted that the standard of faith should be placed, not oil the pope or the clergy, but on the Bible itself', and fiercely denounced the corruption of the Church. Jan Huss (ca. 1374-1415) of Bohemia believed in Wycliffe's teachings and started a reform movement of Christianity, but was declared a heretic and burnt at the stake. In fifteenth-century Florence, Girolamo Savonarola (14521498) conducted a church reform movement, but was likewise suppressed and burnt at the stake. Then, in the sixteenth century, the Reformation sparked by Mat-tin Luther (1483-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564) was carried out. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that started in Italy and spread to the Western European nations in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries. Dante (1265-1321), Petrarca (1304-1374), and Boccaccio (1313-1375) of Florence were the precursors of the Renaissance Movement. The center of the Renaissance in its golden age moved from Florence to Rome, during which time the representative figures were Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Raphael (1483-1520), and Michelangelo (1475-1564).

6. After World War II, Christian leaders were to unite, centering on the Lord of the Second Coming, to create a unified world under God based on the culture of Heart. Instead, however, Christian leaders, persecuted the Lord of the Second Coming, and the world under Communist rule continued for an additional 40 years.

7. Divine Principle, p. 242.

8. Ibid., p. 249.

9. Ibid., p. 251.

10. Toynbee explains the 400-year period of turmoil until the rise of the Roman Empire to the following effect: "The historian sees that the Garaeco-Roman world in a rally in the generation of Augustus after the War at Actium. He also sees that the preceding breakdown began with the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, four centuries earlier. For him, the vitally interesting problem is: What was it that went wrong in the fifth century BC and continued to go wrong until the last century BC? Now, the solution of this problem can only be found by studying Greek and Roman history as a continuing story with a plot that is one and indivisible" (Civilization on Trial, [New York: Oxford University Press, 1948], p. 46). He said, however, "if one does succeed in obtaining this light from it, it proves, experto crede, to be most amazingly illuminating" (Ibid., p. 61)-concluding that, if this question is solved, it would be as if we had obtained a revelation.

11. Divine Principle, pp. 326-327.

12. Oswald Spengler stated as follows: "The application of the 'homology' principle to historical phenomena brings with an entirely new connotation for the word 'contemporary.' I designate as contemporary two historical facts that occur in exactly the same-relative-positions in their respective Cultures, and therefore possess exactly equivalent importance. ...I hope to show that without exception all great creations and forms in religion, art, politics, social life, economy and science appear, fulfill themselves and die down in contemporaneously in all the Cultures; that the inner structure of one corresponds strictly with that of all the others." (The Decline of the West, trans. C.F. Atkinson [London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1961 ], p. 112).

He cites as examples the relationship between ancient Greco-Roman culture and Western culture, Alexander the Great and Napoleon in the political field, Pythagoras and Descartes in the mathematical field, and so on.

13. Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History, Illustrated (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), p. 11.

14. Herodotus was a fatalist who described history in the epic manner as manipulated by the thread of fate. On the other hand, Thucyclides described historical facts realistically and scientifically. Yet, Thucydides also considered, according to the ordinary Greek way of thinking, that history repeats itself. He wrote, "The absence of romance in my history will, I fear, detract somewhat from its interest; but if it be judged useful by those inquirers who desire an exact knowledge of the past as an aid to the interpretation of the future, which in the course of human things must resemble if it does not reflect it, I shall be content. In fine, I have written my work, not as an essay which is to win the applause of the moment, but as a possession for all time" (Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War [London: J. M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., 1948], p. 11).

15. According to the view of history of the Enlightenment thought, God's power was excluded from history because history was thought to be made by man. But Vico thought that even though history was made by man, still it is under God's providence. This means that history is the product of the human power and God's providence. That view is in accord with the Unification view of history. Also, Vico thought that, although history is mainly in the process of progress or development, there are patterns of development and decline in history, and thus lie grasped history as spiral progress. In that respect, lie was a forerunner for the appearance of the cultural view of history advocated by Spengler and Toynbee.

16. Simmel stated in the introduction to the third edition of The Problems of History that "the spirit describes its coast and the rhythm of wave, in the stream of becoming, whereby it finds itself, and by doing so, it makes the stream of becoming a history." (Die Probleme der Geschichle, [Verlag Dunker and Humblot, 1923] p. VII).

17. Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History, Illustrated, p. 488.

18. Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History, (London: Oxford University Press, 1954), vol. 10, p. 1.

19. Karl Lwith, Weligeschichte und Heilsgeschehen (World History and the History of Salvation) (Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1953), p. 48; my translation.

9. Epistemology

1. Masaaki Kosaka, a Japanese scholar, states the following: "As a result of ten years of silence and study, Kant's critical philosophy, which synthesize rationalism and empiricism, was established, and in 1781, the Critique of Pure Reason was published" (History of Western Philosophy (in Japanese] [Tokyo: Sobunsha, 19711, p. 322).

2. Locke wrote, "How comes it [the mind] to be furnished?... Whence has it all the materials of Reason and Knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from Experience In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that, it ultimately derives itself" (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 19791, p.104).

3. Ibid., p. 525.

4. Ibid., p. 578.

5. Rene Descartes, "Discourse Concerning Method," in John .1. Blom, Rene Descartes: The Essential Writings (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1977), p. 134.

6. Ibid., p. 135.

7. Rene Descartes, Principles of Philosophy, in The Philosophical Works of Descartes, (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1911, reprinted 1977), vol. 1, p. 237.

8. Kant, who regarded Wolff as the representative philosopher of dogmatism, said in the preface to the second edition of his Critique of Pure Reason: "Dogmatism is thus the dogmatic procedure of pure reason, without previous criticism of its own powers" (emphasis in original) Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, trans. Norman Kemp Smith [London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1933], p. 32).

9. Ibid., p. 55.

10. Ibid., p. 93.

11. Engels said, "But if the further question is raised what thought and consciousness really are and where they come from, it becomes apparent that they are products of the human brain and that man himself is a product of nature, which has developed in and along with its environment" (Anti-Duhring [Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969], p. 49.

Lenin said, "The mind does not exist independently of the body.... Mind is secondary, a function of the brain, a reflection of the external world" (Materialism and Empirio-criticism [ Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1972), p. 95.

12. Frederick Engels, "Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy," in K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Works (hereafter ME.SM, vol. 3 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1970), p. 362.

13. V. I. Lenin, Materialism and E'mpirio-crilicism, p. 313.

14. V. I. Lenin, "Conspectus of Hegel's Science of Logic," in V. I. Lenin, Collected Works (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976), 38:171.

15. Mao Tse-tung, "On Practice," in Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung (hereafter SWM) (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1975), 1:298-99.

16. Ibid., 1:302.

17. Ibid., 1:308.

18. Engels, "Socialism: Utopian and Scientific," in MESW 3:102.

19. Mao Tse-tung, "On Practice," in SWM 1:297.

20. Ibid., 1:304.

21. F. V. Konstantinov, ed., Fundamentals of Marxist-Leninist Philosophy (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982), pp. 123-46.

22. O. W. Kuusinen, et a]., Fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism (Moscow: Foreign Language Publishing House, 1961), p. 119.

23. K. Marx, "Thesis on Feuerbach," Marx and Engels, Collected Works (New York: International Publishers, 1976), 5:6.

24. Mao Tse-tung, "On Practice," SWM 1:296.

25. V. I. Lenin, Materialism and Empirio-criticism, p. 152.

26. Lenin said, "Human thought then by its nature is capable of giving, and does give, absolute truth, which is compounded of a sum-total of' relative truths. Each step in the development of science adds new grains to the sum of absolute truth." Materialism and Empirio-Criticism, p. 151.

27. Some of the major points of the Unification Principle, on which Unification Epistemology is based, are the following:

i) "When ... the dual essentialities of God enter into give-and-take action by forming a reciprocal relationship, the force of give-and-take action causes multiplication. This action causes the dual essentialities to separate into two substantial objects centered upon God." (Divine Principle, p. 31).

"Multiplication occurs through the O-D-U action caused by the action of give-and-take" (Ibid., p. 40).The phenomenon of the increase in new knowledge can be explained through this principle.

ii) "The spirit man can grow only in the soil of the physical man" (Ibid., p. 61).

"The sensibility of our spirit man is to be cultivated through its reciprocal relationship with our physical man during physical life on earth" (Ibid., p. 62)

"The goodness or evil in the conduct of the physical man influences his spirit man to become either good or evil" (Ibid., p. 60).

Through these points of the Unification Principle, we can come to understand that cognition through the five physical senses necessarily corresponds to cognition through the five spiritual senses, and that cognition and action (practice) originally are intended to fulfill the purpose of goodness.

iii) "In the universe as a whole, man is the subject, who gives love to the rest of the creation, the object, which responds in beauty." (Ibid., p. 48).

"Man had to have the creativity of God in order to be qualified as the dominator of all things" (Ibid., p. 97).

"The purpose for which the universe was created is to have man feel joy and peace" (Explaining the Principle [in Korean], p. 50).

From these points of the Principle, we can understand that cognition and dominion (practice) are in an inseparable relationship, and that the purpose of cognition and dominion lies in the realization of joy and peace.

iv)"We call the two worlds, the visible and invisible, the 'macrocosm,' with man being the substantial center of this total macrocosm" (Divine Principle, p. 38).

"In a human cell, there is life and consciousness, and the mystery of the universe is contained" (a sermon by the Reverend Sun Myung Moon).

From these points we can derive the concepts of protoconsciousness and protoimage as the criteria through which all things in the external world can be cognized.

v) "In give-and-receive action, there are various types, and among them there is also a contrast-type" (Rev. Moon's answer to a question from the author).

From these teachings, it was possible to obtain the concept of .collation" in cognition.

vi) "[The body] should be completely under its [the mind's] command (Divine Principle, p. 22).

"Thinking is also a kind of give-and-receive action, there are give-and-receive action between the mind and the body, and give-and-receive action within the mind" (Rev. Moon's response to the author's questions).

Through these points of' the Unification Principle and Rev. Moon's teachings, it was possible to come to understand such phenomena as the correspondence between the invisible mind and the visible body, that is, the will and the movement of the body, and the cognition Judgment) of the mind about the information (codes) coming through the body (nerves).

"God created man to be the ruler of the universe" (Divine Principle, p. 58).

"When perfected man as subject, and the physical world, as his object, become one united body ... man attains direct dominion over all things." (Ibid., p. 57).

"God created the invisible substantial world and the visible substantial world, and He created man as the ruler over them." (Explaining the Principle [in Korean], p. 44).

"The universe was created as the substantial object to the subjective Sungsang of man" (Ibid., p. 50).

From these principles, we can realize that human beings are created as the subject of cognition as well as the subject of dominion (practice) over all things, and that all things are created as the object of cognition and the object of dominion by human beings, and that, therefore, the relationship between human beings and all things is a necessary relationship, similar to the relationship between mind and body.

28. Divine Principle, p. 55.

29. The functions of the mind include intuition (sensibility), perception, cognition, thinking, inference, conception, planning, memory, pursuit of purpose, recollection, and aesthetic appreciation. Protoconsciousness possesses only some of these functions, such as the functions of sensibility, perception, and pursuit of purpose (purposiveness). Accordingly, protoconsciousness is mind on a lower dimension. Cosmic consciousness is the expression of the cosmic mind on a lower dimension, that is, the expression of God's mind (Sungsang) on a lower dimension.

30. Cosmic consciousness is contained not only in living beings, but also in minerals. However, in minerals it surfaces only as physicochemical functions, because of the structural character of minerals.

One = absolute
Two = relative
Three = Chung-Boon-Hap
Four = Four-Position Base
Five = metal, wood, water, fire, and soil
Six = number of creation
Seven = perfection, Sabbath
Eight = new start
Nine = 3 multiplied by 3
Ten = Return

31. Numbers and laws are in inseparable relationships, as shown in the following:

Thus, basically numbers are manifested in laws and principles, as can be seen in other examples as:

the number of human vertebra
the breathing rate
the pulse rate
body temperature
the four seasons of the year
the number of three months of a season (3)
the number of days of a month (30, 31)
the number of hours of a day (24)
the number of minutes in an hour (60)
the number of seconds in a minute (60)
the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter (pi 3.14)

32. Divine Principle, p. 28.

33. The spirit mind is the mind of the spirit person and contains spiritual elements. Thus, the functional part of the union of the spirit mind and physical mind is called "spiritual apperception" in epistemology.

34. When, in the formation of an inner four-position base of the understanding stage, cognition does not take place, the sensory image becomes an undetermined image. In this case, the following options are available:

i) Create a new image (a new prototype) and repeat the process of collation;

ii) Ask someone else for a judgment (this is called "judgment by another," or "educational judgment");

iii)Abort the judgment (in this case, the sensory image will be erased);

iv) Suspend the judgment (in this case, the sensory image will be stored in the memory).

35. In The Mystery of the Mind, Penfield states: "The brain is a kind of computer in which an automatic mechanism acquired anew is at work. Every computer becomes useful only after- it is given a program and is operated by someone existing separately from the computer. Let us consider the case where we observe a certain thing. It seems that the decision to do so is the function of the mind, which exists separately from the brain." Wilder Penfield, The Mystery of the Mind, [Translated from Japanese edition] (Tokyo: Hosei University Press, 1978), p. 110.

36. Eccles states the following: "These considerations lead me to the alternative hypothesis of dualist-interactionism, which has been expanded at length in The Self and Its Brain. It is really the commonsense view, namely, that we are a combination of two things or entities: our brains on the one hand; and our conscious selves on the other. The self is central to the totality of our conscious experiences as persons through our whole waking life. We link it in memory from our earliest conscious experiences. The self has a subconscious existence during sleep, except for dreams, and on waking the conscious self is resumed and linked with the past by the continuity of memory." (J. C. Eccles and D. N. Robinson, The Wonder of Being Human, [New York: The Free Press, 1984], p. 33).

37. Andre Goudet-Perrot, Cybernitique et Biologie (Japanese version) (Tokyo: Hakusuisha, 1970), p. 15.

38. Ibid., p. 105.

39. This does not exclude, however, the possibility that future development in cerebral physiology may lead to the appearance of a new physiological theory of epistemology. Here I have only provided evidence for- the point that natural science, as it develops more and more, will support the positions of Unification Thought.

40. According to Goudet-Perrot, memory can be divided into two kinds:

1. Hereditary memory, which is received before birth, like the information contained in genes;

2. Acquired memory, which is acquired after birth and constitutes consciousness. (Cybernitique et Biologie, p. 105.)

41. Shigeru Kobayashi, et al., Introduction to Brain Science (in Japanese) (Tokyo: Olimuslia, 1987), p. 134.

42. Masao Ito, Brain and Behavior (in Japanese) (Tokyo: NHK Press Association, 1990), p. 125.

43. Goudet-Perrot, Cybernitique et Biologie Japanese version), p. 89.

44. Hisashi Oshima's views support the concept of prototype and the theory of collation of Unification epistemology. Oshima states the following: "During our long-time contact and interaction with the environment, we come to form numerous prototypes in our mind. The structure of our knowledge is built centering on those prototypes. ...Knowledge has a structure in which, centering on prototypes, their instances are ordered. ... When we try to understand someone's speech, we compare and collate it with the knowledge that is structured in this way. The portions that accord with it are integrated in the structure of knowledge, but those that do not accord are not understood, and even if they appear somehow to be understood, in reality they will be misunderstood" (Hisashi Oshima, The Science of Knowledge [in Japanese] [Tokyo: Shinyosha, 1986], pp. 68-69).

45. M. S. Gazzaniga and J. E. Ledoux, The Integrated Mind (New York: Plenum Press, 1978), p. 133.

46. Ibid., p. 135.

10. Logic

1. Immanuel Kant, Critique (cf. Pure Reason, trans. by Norman Kemp Smith (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. 1950), p. 17.

2. Hegel stated the following in the introduction to The Science of Logic. "One may therefore express it thus: that this content shows forth God as He is in His eternal essence before the creation of nature and of infinite spiral" (The Philosophy of Hegel, ed. Carl J. Friedrich [New York: The Modern Library, 19541, p. 186).

3. In the section dealing with "Quality," in "The Doctrine of Being," Hegel stated, "Pure Being makes the beginning: because it is on one hand pure thought, and on the other immediacy itself, simple and indeterminate; arid the first beginning cannot be mediated by anything, or be further determined." (Hegel's Logic, trans. William Wallace [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975], p. 124).

4. Hegel stated, "But this mere Being, as it is mere abstraction, is therefore the absolutely negative; which, in a similarly immediate aspect, is just Nothing" (Ibid., p. 127).

5. Hegel stated, "Becoming is the first concrete thought, and therefore the first notion; whereas Being and Nought are empty abstractions. ... Becoming is only the explicit statement of what Becoming is in its truth" (Ibid., p. 132).

6. At the end of The Phenomenology of Mind, Hegel stated, "This transforming process is a cycle that returns into itself, a cycle that pi-cstipposes its beginning, and reaches its beginning only at the end" (G. W. F. Hegel, The Phenomenology of Mind, trans. J. B. Baillie [New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1967], p. 801).

7. Engels, satirizing the laws of identity and contradiction in formal logic, wrote, "To the metaphysician, things and their mental reflexes, ideas, are isolated, are to be considered one after the other and apart from each other are objects of investigation fixed, rigid, given once and for ail. He thinks in absolutely irreconcilable antitheses. ... His communication is yea, yea; nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil." For him a thing either exists or does not exist; a thing cannot at the same time be itself and something else. Positive and negative absolutely exclude one another; cause and effect stand in a rigid antithesis one to the other (Anti-Duhring Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969], p. 31).

8. Nasatane Iwasaki, Commentary Logic (in Japanese), (Cbiba: Azusa Shuppansha, 1979), p. 31.

9. Ibid., p. 37.

10. Concerning dialectical logic, the Japanese author Tsunenobu Terasawa. wrote in the preface of' his An Essay on Dialectical Logic, "About 150 years have passed since Hegel wrote Science of Logic (1812-1816), and in the meantime, no system of dialectical logic to replace it has been written by anyone. Even though the need for dialectical logic from a materialist position has often been emphasized, it has not as yet been written systcriatically by anyone" (in Japanese) (Tokyo: Otsuki-shoten, 1957). And even after Terasawa wrote that, no systematized dialectical logic seems to have appeared.

11. Kant wrote, "All our knowledge starts with the senses, proceeds from thence to understanding, and ends with reason, beyond which there is no higher faculty to be found in us. ... it [reason] abstracts from all content of knowledge" (Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, trans. by Kemp Smith [London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1950], p. 300).

12. Hegel stated the following: "But every additional and more concrete characterization causes Being to lose that integrity and simplicity it has in the beginning. Only in, and by virtue of, this mere generality is it Nothing, something inexpressible, whereof the distinction from Nothing is a mere intention or meaning, All that is wanted is to realize that these beginnings are nothing but these empty abstractions, one as empty as the other" (Hegel's Logic, p. 127).

13. Kazuto Matsumura, Hegel's Logic (in Japanese) (Tokyo: Keisoshobo, 1959), p. 40.

14. Johannes Hirscliberger, History of Philosophy, Vol. 111, "The Modern Period" (Japanese translation) (Tokyo: Risosha, 1976), pp. 509-10.

15. According to Akira Seto, the following difficulties arose as a result of the debate on Logic in the fifties:

(i) Difficulty in the Reflection Theory of Logic:

It was asserted that the law of identity and the law of contradiction are on one hand relative, as they are reflections of the relative unchangeability of objective reality, while on the other hand they are absolute as the rules of operation of' thought, or the forms of thought. However, the refutation was made that if the law of' identity and the law of contradiction are merely relative reflections of reality, then all they can naturally have is only relative validity.

(ii) Difficulty in the Operation Theory of Logic:

Formal logic is the logic of operation in the sense that it is not concerned with the truthfulness of thinking, but with the validity of thinking. Therefore, it was asserted that the law of identity and the law of contradiction are not reflections of' reality but they are purely the laws and norms of thinking. However, to recognize independent laws of thinking without any relationship to existence would imply losing the materialistic foundation, falling into Kantian a priarism (Akira Seto, Contemporary Epistemology and Dialectic [in Japanese] [Tokyo: Sekibunsha, 1976], pp. 234-237).

The difficulty pointed out in my book refers to part (ii) above. As a method of solving the two difficulties above, Seto suggests that we should recognize that the two contradictions in the law of contradiction, namely, dialectical contradiction and the contradiction in the formal logic are originally different in nature. However, to regard the two contradictions as essentially different would be to lose the materialistic foundation. After all, the problems are not solved at all, as Seto himself points out: "This does not solve all problems. ... A question is raised as to the reason why the situation has arisen that the two essentially different contradictions are expressed in the law of contradiction at the same time" (Ibid., p. 250).

11. Methodology

1. From the Introduction to "Prolegomena" by Kant, The Philosophy of Kant-Immanuel Kant's Moral and Political Writings, ed. Carl J. Friedrich (New York: The Modern Library, 1977), p.45

2. Kant stated: "That had not even occurred to anyone except him [Hume], although everyone unconcernedly used these concepts (without asking on what their objective validity rested)" (Ibid., p. 46).

3. Hegel's Science of Logic, trans. by AN. Miller (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1969), p. 439.

4. Frederick Engels, Anti-Duhring (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969), pp. 168-9.

5. V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, Vol. 38 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976), p. 358.

6. Ibid.

7. F. Engels, Anti-Duhring, , p. 33. >> Go to top


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